1. Which philosopher talked about utilitarianism, happiness, in terms of pleasure/pain as a moral compass or appraisal for behavior? 2. Which philosopher talked about Man in the state of Nature, and Social contract as the beginning of morality in human society? 3. What types of pleasure did John Stuart Mill talk about? 4. According to Aristotle, a Virtuous lifestyle leads one to———————? 5. Would you say that one ethical theory is superior to the others; why? # 5 points for the above five questions. # 15 points for the Essay question below. According to Mintzberg, professional organizations have two unique characteristics: (i) they are democratic, and (ii) they bestow extensive autonomy on individual professionals. How can these two characteristics lead to advantageous results on the one hand and to unfortunate consequences on the other? A good essay will either:Articulate Mintzberg’s argument, providing solid reasons and examples demonstrating that these two characteristics can lead to both negative and positive results; or Articulate your own counterargument, providing solid reasons and examples demonstrating that these two characteristics need not lead to both negative and positive results in this manner.