Electronic Packaging Fundamentals Course Project ReportAutomotive MEMS and Sensors TechnologyINTRODUCTIONMicro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are developed as a result of technological advancement in integrated circuits and micromanufacturing, and its technology has become the backbone of many sensor technologies in automobiles. Although faced with many challenges such as device miniaturization, quality, and reliability testing, and high cost from packaging and testing, emerging solutions such as MEMS packaging standardization and wafer level testing can be adopted to overcome these setbacks.LITERATURE REVIEWDevice Miniaturization Device miniaturization has been the ongoing trend in the electronic industry, and the demand for advancement in MEMS technology reflects the drive as well. The recent development in autonomous vehicles and portable devices are calling for higher integration of MEMS sensors to support its increasing capabilities. As these devices increase in function and complexity, the available footprint within the device is continuously limited by the ever-decreasing device size. The manufacturing technique that enables the production of MEMS technology is bulk surface machining, where layers of mechanical structures and features are created through a combination of etching and layer deposition. As the demand for smaller and more intricate features rises, the industry must provide an answer in terms of improved and more advanced manufacturing techniques to address the miniaturization trend.Component Testing Many MEMS devices serve as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and sensors for critical data acquisition applications; therefore, the reliability and quality of these devices must be ensured. Extensive reliability testing is performed at the device or package level to ensure that the product meets requirements and specifications. When it comes to testing MEMS products, both electrical and mechanical analysis is required for a thorough examination of the product performance. The coupling relationship of the mechanical parts with electrical circuitry results in a complex system that requires unique testing equipment. The cost of testing equipment and setups such as testing stations can easily exceed millions of dollars in capital investment from the device manufacturer. The Challenge of high testing cost poses a roadblock in the MEMS market and innovative solutions are needed for a cost-saving solution.MEMS and CMOS Integration As shown in Fig. 1, MEMS structure is often coupled with integrated circuitry to perform sensing and analysis of the acquired data. The industry’s drive to lower the production cost and device size calls for the tackling of the challenge in MEMS and CMOS process integration. The current method for system integration involves the manufacturing of the MEMS and electrical circuitry on different substrates, and interconnects or direct bonding of the two chips are performed for device integration. This approached is forced by the high cost associated with monolithic integration. Challenges foreseen within the industry would be to lower the cost associated with the integration of MEMS with IC fabrication.
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