NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

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Hello Colleagues,

Because of his positive rapid strep test and symptoms, the boy in the scenario was given amoxicillin. Fever, red swollen tonsils, purulent tonsils, swallowing pain, petechiae, odynophagia, and swollen lymph nodes are all common symptoms (CDC, 2021). His local inflammation symptoms include vascular changes and tissue leakage (McNance & Huether, 2019). Vasodilation causes increased blood flow to the area, resulting in redness and swelling. White blood cells leak into the infected area as capillaries dilate. His pain is caused by increased pressure on the tissues caused by. The purulent exudate is caused by phagocytizing cells dying in the area and being eliminated through the throat’s epithelial tissue. These cells have reached maturity and can no longer replicate. They are also sensitive to the body’s acidic environment, so they die after performing their immunological functions (McCance & Huether, 2019). The lymphatic system causes anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy. Lymphatic channels carry body fluids from the site of infection to nodules. Because of fluid shifts, these nodules have swollen. The nodes serve as a processing center, introducing invaders to the nodes’ resident B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages (NCBI, 2021). The immune system analyzes intruders and can fine-tune its response.

The physiologic response to amoxicillin was one of type 1 hypersensitivity. Amoxicillin was perceived as a threat by cells in the body, prompting an inflammatory immune response. Mast cells are the starting point for everything. Skin, blood vessels, and lung tissue are all lined with mast cells. They can be activated by injury, chemicals, adaptive immune responses, or recognizing virus and bacteria molecular patterns (McCance & Huether, 2019). Immunoglobulin E (IgE), a chemical that circulates in the blood, binds to mast cells, causing them to release , and histamine via a process known as degranulation. Mast cells also produce chemicals that attract neutrophils and eosinophils to areas of injury, where they phagocytoze foreign invaders. The most important chemical in this reaction is histamine. It causes hives, vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, hypotension, and increased mucous production when it binds to the H1 receptor. Phagocytes such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and dendritic cells can then enter the injured area. RBCs, other body fluids, and all white blood cells pass through, causing edema in the affected areas. All of the extra fluid produced in response to the threat caused edema of his tongue, lips, and airway, as well as increased secretion of lung tissues. This is a critical issue because it leads to airway compromise, which is potentially fatal.

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NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

Strep throat is seen more in children than adults, especially ages five to 15 (CDC, 2018). Crowded areas such as schools and daycare centers increase risk of transmission (CDC, 2018). As of late, the quarantine has kept children at home so this could be slowing the spread. He is on the high end of the age for those children getting strep throat, but his social situation can also influence it.

Genetic factors play a role too. Approximately ten percent of all U.S. patients report having allergies to a penicillin class antibiotic in their past (CDC, n.d.). Parents can pass down allergies through genetics (NCBI, 2014). This is why it is a good idea to have children tested for allergies when they are younger. That way severe allergic reactions can be anticipated, and life-threatening situations can be avoided.

Thanks,

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (n.d.) Is it really a penicillin allergy? https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/pdfs/penicillin-factsheet.pdf

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2021, January 12) Strep throat: all you need to know. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/strep-throat.html

According to an article published in PubMed titled Cystic fibrosis genetics: from molecular understanding to clinical application, this disease is caused by a defective epithelial cell that is inherited and is an autosomal recessive gene. The genetic information contained within the cell, which serves as the recipe for the cell to produce proteins (Cutting, 2015). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine states that if a person receives a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTCR) or two copies of the CFTCR gene. This copy has a cystic fibrosis gene mutation, and these two copies of the CFTR gene have a mutation that is the oncogene.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2018, November) Group A streptococcal (gas) disease. 

McCance, K., & Huethe, S. (2019) Pathophysiology the biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8thed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (2021). Adenopathy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513250/

National Center for Biotechnology. (2014) Genetics of allergic diseases. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415518/

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Photo Credit: Getty Images

Week 1 Case Study

Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the Cystic Fibrosis trans-membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. Often, the CFTR gene provides commands and instructions for the CFTR protein. However, for an individual to have CF, they must inherit copies of the CFTR gene with mutation (Peters, 2014). With the 23 pairs of chromosomes that human beings have, the CF gene is chromosome number seven. The affected receptors are inside the sweat glands that release sodium chloride. In CF, the chloride receptors are abnormal; thus, the chloride cannot move back into the body. The chloride then moves onto the skin, followed by sodium, causing the skin to taste salty.

The baby tastes salty due to the accumulation of chloride ions in the mucus-producing cells. Considering that the CFTR proteins play the role of controlling the amount of salt in the perspiration glands, its insufficiency may lead to dehydration due to salt loss in the sweat glands (Peters, 2014). On the other hand, blockage occurs due to the collection of mucus, and the cilia mobility gets impaired, causing a congested chest in the baby. Also, the baby is suffering from Colic due to accumulated secretions in the digestive duct due to malabsorption. According to Huether & McCance (2019), when the pancreatic enzymes decrease, the digestive enzymes in the intestines also decrease, leading to the malabsorption of nutrients responsible for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Consequently, an individual experiences abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting (Brown et al., 2017). Concerning the physiologic response to the stimulus presented, it is essential first to understand that for children with cystic fibrosis, the CFTR sticks inside the endoplasmic reticulum cell organelle, which is a sac within a cell that facilitate protein synthesis like CFTR together with other cell functions (Brown et al., 2017). however, despite there being n specific cure, vaccinations, breathing system treatments, physical therapies, and medications can be important. Another characteristic that would change the response aligns with whether the mother will have more children. In this case, the disease gene heterozygous carriers are present with her spouse, meaning that there are chances for recurrence of the disease, mostly 50% of the other child having a similar disease. The parents are required to seek medical and genetic counseling to identify the possibilities of autosomal recessive genetic diseases.

References

Brown, S. D., White, R., & Tobin, P. (2017). Keep them breathing: Cystic fibrosis pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Journal of the American Academy of PAs, 30(5), 23-27.

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2018). Pathophysiology-E-book: the biologic basis for disease in adults and children. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Peters, S. (2014). Cystic fibrosis: a review of pathophysiology and current treatment recommendations. South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association, 67(4), 148-51.

Discussion: Alteration in Cellular Processes

Initial Post

Malnutrition has been around for a long time, but the extent to which it exists in various countries, such as the third world and the United States, differs. Malnutrition is common among youngsters, but the elderly in the United States are at far greater risk (U.S.). As we become older, we get less able to recognize the symptoms, which is a major cause of unnoticed symptoms (Alliance for Aging Research, 2016.).

The case of an 83-year-old man with widespread edema of the extremities and belly will serve as the basis for this discussion. Due to a lack of dentures, this patient suffers from malabsorption syndrome. Protein Malnutrition has been diagnosed in the patient. Symptoms, cells responsible for the illness and the likely variation and effects due to protein deficiency will all be thoroughly explored as part of this disease investigation.

The Influence of Genetics on the Disease

In the nucleus’ cytoplasm, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are involved in the transcription and translation processes, respectively (McCance & Huether, 2019.). Transcription is produced from RNA synthesis as an RNA messenger. A gene is created when an enzyme called RNA polymerase bonds to a DNA proponent (McCance & Huether, 2019.). Furthermore, the DNA segment that controls the transcription of specific genes and is in charge of their transcriptional timing gave rise to another protein, the transcription factor binding site. Enhancers can either create or suppress genes during transcription (McCance & Huether, 2019.). The RNA polymerase extracts a portion of another DNA strand to make mRNA nucleotides and thus directs the nucleotide cycle. The transcriptional processes end when the so-called

To put it another way, the RNA polymerase breaks away from its DNA binding partner, leading to the release of the transcribed mRNA (McCance & Huether, 2019.). A protein is formed in the cytoplasm when a gene is translated, the second step in the process. Because tRNA has room to handle amino acids, translation communicates with it throughout translation (McCance & Huether, 2019.). The right codon in the mRNA is paired with an anticodon, a combination of three nucleotides, and the mRNA uses tRNA to specify the order of amino acids. A codon is generated in the cytoplasm with the help of ribosomes when a codon is paired with a nucleotide in the codon’s sequence. Polypeptides are formed when amino acids are linked together in a certain way (McCance & Huether, 2019.). The ribosome tells the mRNA sequence, translation, and polypeptide growth to stop at the end of the process. Although they are all separated, the polypeptide gets transported to the cytoplasm where it can carry out its function (McCance & Huether, 2019.).

Specific Symptoms of the Patient’s Condition

Intestinal mucosal accumulation is caused by a deficit in protein. As a result, absorption slows and performance suffers. Protein malnutrition is characterized by low blood levels of the amino acid cysteine (McConnell, 2014.). The patient’s symptoms of edema and ascites are exacerbated by low albumin levels because of the decreased intravascular osmotic pressure, which results in fluid retention from the extravascular pressure (McConnell, 2014.).

How and why the Physiologic Response to the Stimulus Happened

As albumin synthesis declines, plasma oncotic pressure falls. As the capillary leaks fluid into the interstitial space, edema develops in the limbs. This patient has been diagnosed with protein deficiency due to a decreased plasma protein and decreased osmotic pressure (McCance & Huether, 2019). Excessive fluid loss from plasma to the interstitial space is another physiologic reaction that can explain the patient’s swelling symptoms, which is evidenced by increased capillary permeability in the vessels. Due to protein loss from the vascular area, the osmotic pressure decreases and the interstitial oncotic pressure rises, allowing free fluids to enter the interstitial space (McCance & Huether, 2019. Edema in the abdomen is a patient’s physiological response to excess fluid accumulation in the abdomen (McCance & Huether, 2019.

The Process’s Participating Cells

Differentiation and/or cell maturity allow cells to specialize. There are a variety of functions performed by cells, including muscle movement, conductivity, mechanical absorption, secretion, excretion, respiration and communication.

This section will focus on cells that are involved in the uptake of metabolic energy. The cells in the intestine and kidney are responsible for the absorption and re-absorption of fluids, as well as the synthesis of protein, when they are surrounded by the right nutrients. Gut epithelial cells do the finest job of reabsorbing fluids and protein enzymes, in large part (McCance & Huether, 2019). The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for the synthesis and transport of cellular organelle protein and lipid contents (McCance & Huether, 2019.).

How Gender Changed My Response

There are some variations when it comes to differences in gender and race in protein levels. In this section, a comparison of c-reactiveprotein (CRP)

will be discussed. Based on research, blacks tend to have higher CRP levels while whites present with lower CRP levels. Also,women tend to have a

higher CRP level than men (Khera et al., 2005). This is interesting to know that protein malnutrition is more significantor more prominent in race and

gender. This may be considered essential to add as part of assessment tools for providers.

 

 

Week 1: Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment

One of the more common biology analogies refers to cells as the “building blocks” of life. This rightfully places an emphasis on understanding cells, cellular behavior, and the impact of the environment in which they function.

Such an understanding helps explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health. Just as importantly, it helps explain how breakdowns in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issues.

This week, you examine cellular processes that are subject to alterations that can lead to disease. You evaluate the genetic environments within which these processes exist as well as the impact these environments have on disease.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
  • Evaluate the impact of the genetic environment on disease

Learning Resources

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
  • Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents (pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
  • Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases
  • Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
  • Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
  • Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing
  • Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 10: Infection (pp. 289–303; stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
  • Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping); Summary Review
  • Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction); Summary Review
  • Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review

 

Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 1 Discussion

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease that is more common among Whites in the US (Brown et al., 2017). It is estimated that more than 30,000 people live with CF and occurs in one out of 3500 births annually. While it is a disease affecting multiple organs, CF’s impacts on the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality (Brown et al., 2017).

The genetics involved in CF

Mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are associated with the development of CF symptoms (Brown et al., 2017). The CFTR gene is responsible for regulating the transport of salts – sodium and chloride ions, in particular – across different body tissues. Mutations to these genes inherited from both parents cause impaired and defective transport of salt ions and a decrease in water movement, resulting in the build-up of thick mucus throughout the body (McBennett et al., 2022). The increased mucous across body systems cause obstruction and abnormalities that produce respiratory insufficiency. The mucus, along with impaired ion transport, also creates a conducive environment for bacterial colonization, which produces a severe inflammatory response (Brown et al., 2017). When this inflammatory response repeats over time, the destruction of tissues along the affected systems can occur. Additionally, thick mucus around the pancreas can impact its functions by limiting the secretion of digestive enzymes, leading to difficulties digesting food, poor absorption of nutrients, and poor weight gain (Endres & Konstan, 2022).

Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described?

The patient is presenting with the symptoms described because of impaired gastrointestinal functions. In particular, difficulties digesting food from impaired pancreatic functions cause discomfort, swelling, and crying after eating (Endres & Konstan, 2022). Additionally, impaired absorption of nutrients causes poor weight gain even though the child is eating well.

The physiologic response to the stimulus and cells involved in the process

Normally, food intake triggers multiple physiologic processes, including the secretion of digestive enzymes important in breaking down food. However, because CF is associated with thick mucus that may block enzyme ducts, there is impaired digestion and absorption of food. Besides the gastrointestinal cells, epithelial cells are also involved.

Impact of other characteristics

CF affects all individuals from different races, ethnicities, and gender, although it is more common among non-Hispanic Whites. However, a particular characteristic that would change the pathophysiologic processes involved in the disease would be age. According to Brown et al. (2017), gastrointestinal disturbances are more common in infants but respiratory distress characterized by recurrent wheezing, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and shortness of breath with exercise will become more common with age. Furthermore, CF may cause infertility in men and difficulty getting pregnant in women (Endres & Konstan, 2022).

Response to the patient

The patient’s mother wants to know what cystic fibrosis is and if they can still have children. In responding to this patient, I would explain the causes and genetic susceptibility of CF, including the common symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatment options. Regarding whether they should have other children, I would emphasize that this is a personal choice for them but provide vital information to help them inform their decision. Considering That their two children have symptoms of CF, there is a high chance the next child will also have CF, which may be challenging for parents. I would inform the parent of these challenges and also discuss how advancements in science have allowed CF to be managed effectively with CFTR modulator therapy (McBennett et al., 2022). Having provided this information, I would encourage the parent to talk with her partners.

References

Brown, S. D., White, R., & Tobin, P. (2017). Keep them breathing: Cystic fibrosis pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants30(5), 23–27. 

Endres, T. M., & Konstan, M. W. (2022). What is cystic fibrosis? JAMA327(2), 191–191. 

McBennett, K. A., Davis, P. B., & Konstan, M. W. (2022). Increasing life expectancy in cystic fibrosis: Advances and challenges. Pediatric Pulmonology, 57(S1), S5-S12. 

Module 1 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 1 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Discussion and Assignment. (4m)

Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology – Week 1 (14m)

Immunity and Inflammation

 

Acid-Base Balance #1

 

Acid-Base Balance #2

 

Hyponatremia

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content

  1. Go to 
  2. Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, or ISBN 9780323654395 (name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
  3. Complete the registration process.

To View the Content for This Text

  1. Go to 
  2. Click on Student Site.
  3. Type in your username and password.
  4. Click on the Login button.
  5. Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
  6. Click on the name of the textbook for this course.
  7. Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
  8. Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).

Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Content

Name: NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

Answers all parts of the Discussion question(s) with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Points Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Responds to the Discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with two credible sources.

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 34 (34%)

Does not respond to the Discussion question(s) adequately.

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible sources.

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Post: Timeliness Points Range: 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)

Posts main post by Day 3.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

N/A

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

N/A

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not post main post by Day 3.

First Response Points Range: 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 15 (15%) – 16 (16%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 13 (13%) – 14 (14%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 12 (12%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response Points Range: 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 11 (11%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Participation Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

N/A

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

N/A

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.

Total Points: 100

Name: NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric

The Scenario of a 16-year-old boy with sore throat.

The Scenario of a 16-year-old boy with a sore throat complaint.

 

In the assigned scenario of a 16-year-old boy who presented in the clinic with chief complaint of sore throat for 3 days. Though he denied fever or chills, but his presenting symptoms of low grade fever ( temp 99.9 F) and reddened posterior pharynx with white exudate on tonsils that are enlarged to 3+ positive anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy; this prompted his HCP to perform rapid strep test in the office and it was positive for group A streptococcal (GAS) causing streptococcal pharyngitis known as strep throat. It is a common bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics; hence, amoxicillin 500mg p.o. q 12hours x 10 days was prescribed. The 16-year-old developed anaphylactic drug reaction to Amoxicillin which manifested as swelling of his tongue and lips, and difficulty breathing with audible wheezing.

Genetics plays an important role in streptococcal pharyngitis only if there is a family history of recurrent pharyngitis and if some of his family members are carriers of a group A Streptococcal pyogenes. In this scenario, the 16-year-old boy has no family history of recurrent pharyngitis and no one of his family member was a carrier. According to Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2018), acute pharyngitis may not be associated with a specific genetic condition.

The physiological response to the stimulus like swelling of the tongue and lips with difficulty breathing is due to drug allergic reaction to amoxicillin taken by the patient. This response occurred due to immune system hyperactivity to the allergen which, in this case, was amoxicillin as stated in McCance & Huether (2019, p.225) that penicillin-based medications like amoxicillin has low molecular weight and cannot trigger immune response until after binding with larger molecules in the blood.

This response occurred because the allergen triggered antibodies immunoglobulin E (IgE) that travels to the cell and releases chemical called histamine. According to Vaillant & Zito (2019), type 1 hypersensitivity reactions mediated by IgE causing anaphylactic response occurring within 24 hours as observed in the 16 -old year patient.

The cells that are involved in this process are mast cells and basophils. The antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils; these contain histamine granules that are released in the reaction, causing inflammation (Vailliant & Zito,2019).

Another characteristic that would change my response is genetics because some families may genetically be predisposed to recurrent group A streptococcal infections; however, gender does not play a role in contracting pharyngitis. Moreover, strep throat is common among ages 5 to 16.

 

Reference

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2018). Pharyngitis (Strepthroat): Information for clinicians.cdc.gov.

McCance,K. & Huether, S (2019) Pathophysiology: The biological basis for disease in adult and children (8th ed). Mosby.

Vaillant, J & Zito, P (2019). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (NCBI Bookshelf) StatPearls Publishing.

NURS_6053_Module03_Week06_Assignment_Rubric

Excellent Good Fair Poor
Develop and submit a personal leadership philosophy that reflects what you think are characteristics of a good leader. Use the scholarly resources on leadership you selected to support your philosophy statement. Your personal leadership philosophy should include the following:

·   A description of your core values.
·   A personal mission/vision statement.

Points Range: 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

The response accurately and thoroughly describes in detail a set of core values.

The response accurately and completely describes in detail a personal mission/vision statement.

Points Range: 12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

The response describes a set of core values.

The response describes a personal mission/vision statement.

Points Range: 11 (11%) – 11 (11%)

The response describes a set of core values that is vague or inaccurate.

The response describes a personal mission/vision statement that is vague or inaccurate.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 10 (10%)

The response describes a set of core values that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

The response describes a personal mission/vision statement that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

·   Analysis of your CliftonStrengths Assessment summarizing the results of your profile.
·   A description of two key behaviors you wish to strengthen.
Points Range: 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

The response accurately and completely provides an analysis and detailed summary of the CliftonStrengths Assessment.

The response accurately and thoroughly describes in detail two key behaviors to strengthen.

Points Range: 12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

The response accurately provides an analysis and summary of the CliftonStrengths Assessment.

The response describes two key behaviors to strengthen.

Points Range: 11 (11%) – 11 (11%)

The response provides an analysis and summary of the CliftonStrengths Assessment that is vague or inaccurate.

The response describes two key behaviors to strengthen that is vague or inaccurate.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 10 (10%)

The response provides an analysis and summary of the CliftonStrengths Assessment that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

The response describes two key behaviors to strengthen that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

·   A development plan that explains how you plan to improve upon the two key behaviors you selected and an explanation of how you plan to achieve your personal vision. Be specific and provide examples.
Points Range: 50 (50%) – 55 (55%)

An accurate, complete, and detailed development plan is provided that thoroughly explains plans to improve upon the two key behaviors selected.

The responses accurately and thoroughly explain in detail plans on how to achieve a personal vision with specific and accurate examples.

The response includes a comprehensive synthesis of information gleaned from sources that fully support how to achieve a personal vision. Integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 2 or 3 course-specific resources to fully support the responses provided.

Points Range: 44 (44%) – 49 (49%)

An accurate development plan is provided that explains plans to improve upon the two key behaviors selected.

The responses explain plans on how to achieve a personal vision and may include some specific examples.

The response includes a synthesis of information gleaned from sources that may support how to achieve a personal vision. Integrates 1 credible outside source, in addition to 2 or 3 course-specific resources which may support the responses provided.

Points Range: 39 (39%) – 43 (43%)

A development plan is provided that explains plans to improve upon the two key behaviors selected that is vague or inaccurate.

The responses explain plans on how to achieve a personal vision and may include some examples that are vague or inaccurate.

The response includes information gleaned from 2 or 3 sources that may support how to achieve a personal vision.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 38 (38%)

A development plan is provided that explains plans to improve upon the two key behaviors selected that is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

The responses explain plans on how to achieve a personal vision that is vague and inaccurate, does not include any examples, or is missing.

The response does not include any additional information gleaned from outside sources, or is missing.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:

Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction is provided which delineates all required criteria.

Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion is provided which delineates all required criteria.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is stated, yet is brief and not descriptive.

Points Range: 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is vague or off topic.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time.

No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion was provided.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:

Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation

Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
Points Range: 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors.
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.
Points Range: 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
Total Points: 100

 

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