NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

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NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

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Social Determinants of Health that Contribute to the

Development of HIV/AIDS

The social determinants are factors influencing the risk of transmission of HIV/AIDs disease. Social activities influence the spread of the disease significantly and that is why community behavioral modification campaigns are developed to promote healthy lifestyles among people. The rate of transmission of the disease varies from one social setting to another due to various reasons. The social determinants for HIV/AIDS include sexual violence, gender inequality, marital status, migratory behaviors in search of employment, geographic locations, and stigma related to HIV/AIDS and legal status (Laurencin et al., 2018). Also, promiscuity is linked to the high spread of the disease. Victims of sexual violence such as rape are also most likely to contract the disease and that is why they must be tested. The incidences of HIV/AIDs cases among the victims of rape and sexual violence are high and this could be because the perpetrators of the crimes are sometimes influenced by the desire to revenge. Exploring social factors is important in the fight against HIV/AIDS because it focuses on reducing risky behaviors and promoting responsibility among the populations.

Assessment Description

Communicable Disease Selection

  1. Chickenpox
  2. Tuberculosis
  3. Influenza
  4. Mononucleosis
  5. Hepatitis B
  6. HIV
  7. Ebola
  8. Measles
  9. Polio
  10. Influenza

Write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.

Epidemiology Requirements

  1. Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
  2. Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.
  3. Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
  4. Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.
  5. Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
  6. Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.

A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required.

Prepare this according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Course Resources if you need assistance.

Attachments

 

Epidemiologic Triangle as it Relates to the HIV/AIDS

The epidemiological triangle focus on the relationship between the host, agent, and environment. The triangle also helps in guiding the prevention measures. In this case, reducing the interaction between the agent, the host, and the environment. In this case, the agent refers to HIV which is a pathogenic micro-organism. The virus targeted the human CD4 cells and this means eliminating the receptors for the viral attachment into the host could reduce the infection rate. The host in the triangle refers to human beings. Human beings harbor the virus in their system (Bandera et al., 2018). Human beings act as carriers for the virus and they can spread it through sexual intercourse and blood transfusion among other methods as discussed above. The transmission and spread of the virus entirely depend on human behavior. Finally, the environment refers to the environmental factors facilitating the spread of the virus. Some of the factors include social pressure, lack of adequate healthcare system to create interventions for the vulnerable groups, and the increasing poverty rates in some areas that lead to prostitution or increased sexual activities for income.

Education and awareness creation are important tools for fighting the spread of HIV/AIDs. Education and awareness create consciousness among the population to avoid social activities that could predispose them to the disease. On the other hand, it also helps in preventing unwanted behaviors such as stigmatization which reduces the willingness of the people to go for screening and thus increases the risk of transmission. Lack of screening is associated with high transmission and spread of the disease by people who may not know that they have the disease. Other preventive measures have always included abstinence from sex and adherence to antiretroviral drugs.

Role of the Community Health Nurse in the Management of HIV/AIDS: NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

Community health nurses play critical roles when it comes to the management of HIV/AIDS. Their involvement in the intervention processes aids in stopping the spread of the virus and subsequent reduction in the number of cases across different regions. Community health nurses facilitate case findings, data collection processes in the research processes to identify the required interventions, and follow-ups to determine the effectiveness of the required interventions. Win the increasing cases of HIV/AIDS; there is always the need for research processes that can help in the development of the epidemiological triangle; these studies require the intervention of the community health nurses, epidemiologists as well as other healthcare professionals (Bandera et al., 2018). Community health nurses play critical roles when it comes to the management of different complications associated with HIV/AIDS. In their process of engagement with the infected persons or victims, they often tend to enhance case findings, case reporting, data collection, and analysis, NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment.

Demographic data are critical for the health of the community. They enhance the research processes aimed at establishing effective research processes. The demographic data can establish the trends or rates of HIV/AIDS infections. Demographic data are often used to develop epidemiological methods for disease surveillance to determine the critical hazards associated with the disease. Demographic data are also used in the studies to identify the risk factors that may represent the critical control points in the management of HIV/AIDS.

Agencies Involved in Addressing HIV/AIDS-NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

The agencies involved in fighting HIV/AIDS establish measures and protocols to reduce the spread of the disease. One of the agencies involved in addressing HIV/AIDS is the USAID (U.S Agency for International Development). The agency was established in 1986 to support the PRPFAR programs in more than 100 nations (Bandera et al., 2018). The agency is involved in the management of HIV/AIDS programs by targeting vulnerable populations or those at high risk of being infected by HIV/AIDs.

The agency offers support to the HIV/AIDs programs to various nations. They set goals for the various nations to eradicate the disease and improve adherence to the people on medications. The agency focuses on strengthening the primary healthcare systems to prevent and enhance the management of HIV/AIDS (Bandera et al., 2018). Furthermore, through constant research, the agency establishes new measures of reaching more populations in terms of screening and curbing the spread of the disease. Various agencies work together to achieve a synergized outcomes on fighting HIV/AIDs and promoting positive behavioral patterns among the populations.

Global Implication of HIV/AIDS: NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

The impact of HIV/AIDs is wide-reaching. There are currently many orphans in the world courtesy of the HIV/AIDS disease. Therefore, the analysis of the burden of the disease should focus on both the social and financial impacts. It is estimated that about 770,000 people died of HIV/AIDS disease in 2018. The statistics show that many people have died over time and the number of people left as orphans is high. The majority of the orphans tend to be dependent and this shows that HIV/AIDS creates a significant economic crisis.

According to (Bandera et al., 2018), 1.7 million new infections new cases of HIV/AIDs have been reported this year with many families being destabilized due to death. For example, in cases where a family loses their breadwinner to the virus, their living conditions change significantly. Therefore, high incidences of HIV/AIDS are linked to high poverty levels.  Furthermore, government institutions have to spend a lot of money on HIV/AIDS drugs, screening, and health promotion. Besides, it takes a lot of resources to manage the complications arising from the infection.

The rise in healthcare costs is always addressed by developing measures aiming at reducing the spread of the disease among the populations. While many organizations donate funds to fight the disease, such measures may not be sustainable as many resources could be lost in the process. Therefore, reducing the spread of the infection is the main target in the minimization of the costs incurred in the health sector. Various foundations have been established include the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation which supports many people living with HIV/AIDS in Africa (Bandera et al., 2018). HIV is endemic in some regions due to poor cultural and social practices. Statistics indicate that the disease is becoming endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, with an estimated prevalence rate of 12%; this is higher than the global prevalence rate of 5%.

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment Conclusion

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) affects many populations globally both directly and indirectly. The disease is mainly transmitted through sexual intercourse, though, people may also contract it through blood transfusion and sharing sharp objects with infected individuals. Early diagnosis is key in reducing the spread of the disease since people initiated on ARTs develop low viral load which has a lower infectivity rate. Furthermore, the efforts directed to fight the disease should be guided by epidemiological information; more efforts should be directed to the endemic regions. Creating awareness and educating the public on the burden of HIV/AIDS disease is important in its eradication.

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment References

Bandera, A., De Benedetto, I., Bozzi, G., & Gori, A. (2018). Altered gut microbiome composition in HIV infection: causes, effects, and potential intervention. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS13(1), 73-80.

Labrique, A. B., Vasudevan, L., Kochi, E., Fabricant, R., &Mehl, G. (2016). eHealth innovations as health system strengthening tools: 12 common applications and a visual framework. Global Health: Science and Practice1(2), 160-171.

Laurencin, C. T., Murdock, C. J., Laurencin, L., & Christensen, D. M. (2018). HIV/AIDS and the African-American community 2018: a decade call to action. Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities5(3), 449-458.

Epidemiology Paper – Rubric

Criteria Description

Comprehensive Description of a Communicable Disease and the Demographic of Interest

5. Excellent

12.5 points

Overview describing the demographic of interest and clinical description of the communicable disease is presented with a thorough, accurate, and clear overview of all of the clinical descriptors.

4. Good

11.5 points

Clinical description of the communicable disease and demographic of interest is provided. Summary is brief but accurate.

3. Satisfactory

11 points

Overview of the demographic of interest and clinical description of the communicable disease is presented with some inaccuracies of the clinical descriptors.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

10 points

Limited and/or vague summary of demographic of interest and communicable disease is provided. Overview does not offer a clear representation of information necessary for epidemiological study.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Demographic of interest and clinical description are omitted or presented with many inaccuracies.

Criteria Description

Determinants of Health and Explanation of How Determinants Contribute to Disease Development

5. Excellent

12.5 points

Paper comprehensively discusses the determinants of health in relation to the communicable disease, explains their contribution to disease development, and provides evidence to support main points.

4. Good

11.5 points

Paper describes each determinant of health with a comprehensive discussion of their contribution to disease development and progression.

3. Satisfactory

11 points

Paper identifies the determinants of health in relation to the communicable disease selected but does not include an explanation of their role in the development of disease.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

10 points

Paper partially describes the determinants of health in relation to disease development.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Description of the determinants of health and their role in disease development is omitted or presented with many inaccuracies.

Criteria Description

Epidemiologic Triangle (Host Factors, Agent Factors, and Environmental Factors

5. Excellent

25 points

The communicable disease is described thoroughly, accurately, and clearly within an epidemiological triangle. A visual description of the triangle and how the components of the model interact is included.

4. Good

23 points

The communicable disease is described accurately within the context of the epidemiologic triangle. A brief description of factors and interaction is presented.

3. Satisfactory

22 points

The communicable disease is described accurately and clearly within the context of the epidemiologic triangle.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

20 points

The communicable disease is described with some inaccuracies within the epidemiologic triangle. A visual description of the factors and interaction is not present.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Description of the epidemiologic triangle is omitted or presented with many inaccuracies.

Criteria Description

Role of the Community Health Nurse and Importance of Demographic Data

5. Excellent

25 points

Discussion of the role of the community health nurse is clear, comprehensive, and inclusive of the community nurse’s responsibilities to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention through tasks such as case finding, reporting, data collection and analysis, and follow-up. A clear explanation of the importance of demographic data to community health is presented.

4. Good

23 points

Discussion of the role of community health nurse is clear, with a comprehensive description of skills associated with community assessment and planning. An explanation of why demographic data are necessary to community health is presented.

3. Satisfactory

22 points

Discussion of the role of the community health nurses is limited, with a brief overview of skills associated with community assessment and planning. An explanation of why demographic data are necessary to community health is summarized.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

20 points

Discussion of the role of the community health nurse is vague, with no integration of case finding, reporting, data collecting, data analysis, or follow-up skills. An incomplete explanation of why demographic data are necessary to community health is provided.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Discussion of the role of the community health nurse is omitted or unclear. An explanation of why demographic data are necessary to community health is omitted or unclear.

Criteria Description

National Agency or Organization That Works to Addresses Communicable Disease

5. Excellent

12.5 points

An agency or organization is identified. A clear and accurate description of efforts to address communicable disease is offered.

4. Good

11.5 points

An agency or organization is identified, but discussion regarding efforts to address communicable disease is brief.

3. Satisfactory

11 points

An agency or organization is identified, but discussion regarding efforts to address communicable disease is lacking.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

10 points

An agency or organization is identified, but discussion is vague or inaccurate in relation to the communicable disease chosen.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Agency and description of contribution are omitted.

Criteria Description

Global Implication

5. Excellent

12.5 points

A discussion of the global implication of the disease is clear, comprehensive, and inclusive with a comprehensive description of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is provided.

4. Good

11.5 points

A discussion of the global implication of the disease is clear, with a comprehensive description of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is provided.

3. Satisfactory

11 points

A discussion of the global implication of the disease is limited, with some integration of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is provided.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

10 points

A discussion of the global implication of the disease is vague, with no integration of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is not provided.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Global implication of the disease is omitted or unclear.

Criteria Description

Communicates reason for writing and demonstrates awareness of audience.

5. Excellent

6.25 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is clearly communicated throughout and clearly directed to a specific audience.

4. Good

5.75 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is adequately presented. An awareness of the appropriate audience is demonstrated.

3. Satisfactory

5.5 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is discernable in most aspects but is occasionally weak or unclear. There is limited awareness of the appropriate audience.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is unfocused or confused. There is very little awareness of the intended audience.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is not discernible. No awareness of the appropriate audience is evident.

Criteria Description

Advances position or purpose throughout writing; conclusion aligns to and evolves from development.

5. Excellent

6.25 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is logically advanced throughout. The progression of ideas is coherent and unified. A clear and logical conclusion aligns to the development of the purpose.

4. Good

5.75 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is advanced in most aspects. Ideas clearly build on each other. Conclusion aligns to the development of the purpose.

3. Satisfactory

5.5 points

Limited advancement of thesis, position, or purpose is discernable. There are inconsistencies in organization or the relationship of ideas. Conclusion is simplistic and not fully aligned to the development of the purpose.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

Writing lacks logical progression of the thesis, position, or purpose. Some organization is attempted, but ideas are disconnected. Conclusion is unclear and not supported by the overall development of the purpose.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

No advancement of the thesis, position, or purpose is evident. Connections between paragraphs are missing or inappropriate. No conclusion is offered.

Criteria Description

Selects and integrates evidence to support and advance position/purpose; considers other perspectives.

5. Excellent

6.25 points

Specific and appropriate evidence is included. Relevant perspectives of others are clearly considered.

4. Good

5.75 points

Relevant evidence that includes other perspectives is used.

3. Satisfactory

5.5 points

Evidence is used but is insufficient or of limited relevance. Simplistic explanation or integration of other perspectives is present.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

Evidence is limited or irrelevant. The interpretation of other perspectives is superficial or incorrect.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Evidence to support the thesis, position, or purpose is absent. The writing relies entirely on the perspective of the writer.

Criteria Description

Includes spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, language use, sentence structure, etc.

5. Excellent

2.5 points

No mechanical errors are present. Appropriate language choice and sentence structure are used throughout.

4. Good

2.3 points

Few mechanical errors are present. Suitable language choice and sentence structure are used.

3. Satisfactory

2.2 points

Occasional mechanical errors are present. Language choice is generally appropriate. Varied sentence structure is attempted.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

2 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors are present. Inconsistencies in language choice or sentence structure are recurrent.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Errors in grammar or syntax are pervasive and impede meaning. Incorrect language choice or sentence structure errors are found throughout.

Criteria Description

Uses appropriate style, such as APA, MLA, etc., for college, subject, and level; documents sources using citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., appropriate to assignment and discipline.

5. Excellent

3.75 points

No errors in formatting or documentation are present.

4. Good

3.45 points

Appropriate format and documentation are used with only minor errors.

3. Satisfactory

3.3 points

Appropriate format and documentation are used, although there are some obvious errors.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

3 points

Appropriate format is attempted, but some elements are missing. Frequent errors in documentation of sources are evident.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Appropriate format is not used. No documentation of sources is provided.

Topic 2 DQ 1

What are social determinants of health?  Explain how social determinants of health contribute to the development of disease.  Describe the fundamental idea that the communicable disease chain model is designed to represent. Give an example of the steps a nurse can take to break the link within the communicable disease chain.

Resources within your text covering international/global health, and the websites in the topic materials, will assist you in answering this discussion question.

 

Social Determinants of health (SDOH) are conditions of living that stem from circumstances that they were born into. They include, housing, transportation, economic status, social environment, were we work, play, education, racial/ethnic and religious. These conditions set populations into groups which can be seen as an affect on our health (Falkner, 2018).

Social Determinants of health (SDOH) contribute to disease because of limitations in health care and access to it. Unfair barriers to practice healthy behaviors (CDC, 2021). Human made surroundings contribute to the community as a whole and individual behaviors that determine health. Acceptance to education and being compliant understanding their actions will affect improved health. Cost for care and treatment, nutrition, and the ability to access quality and quantity of needed food to meet nutritional needs are all part of the fallout from SDOH.

The chain of infection shows how the cycle continues; each part plays a major role in transmission. Within a community it can spread very quickly, and this community will suffer within the SDOH due to lack of healthcare accessibility. Nursing education on basic infection control practices in these communities can break the chain and decrease the number of those becoming ill. Handwashing is the most effective way to break the chain, covering a cough or sneeze, disposal of garbage and the use of disinfectants can be taught in schools (school nurse), community centers (nurse on site) and at all health care visits. Families can make this an activity that they can do together (CDC, 2022).

Center for Disease Control CDC (2021, September 15th). Achieving Health Equity by Addressing the Social Determinants of Health. Social Determinants of Health. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). 

Center for Disease Control CDC (2022, February 23rd). Handwashing in Communities: Clean Hands Save Lives. 

Falkner, A. (2018). Health Promotion in Nursing Care. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.). Health & wellness across the continuum. 

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