Discussion: Sampling And Data Collection

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Discussion: Sampling And Data Collection

Discussion: Sampling And Data Collection

Sampling and Data Collection in Research Paper

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Refer to Ch. 5 and 7 of Applied Social Research


Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper describing observation and measurement as they relate to human services research.


Address each of the following points in your paper:


1.     Sampling

·         What is the purpose of sampling?

o    What are the fundaments of sampling?

o    Give an example (identifying the characteristics) of one type of probability and nonprobability sampling presented in Ch. 6 of Applied Social Research.

·         How can you avoid bias when selecting samples for human services research?

2.     Data Collection

·         Describe the scales of measurement used in research.

·         What are the types of reliability? Provide examples of the types of reliability as they apply to human services research or to human services management research.

·         What are the types of validity? Provide examples of these types of validity as they apply to human services research or to human services management research.

·         Why is it important to ensure that data collection methods and instruments are both reliable and valid?

·         What are the advantages and disadvantages of each of the following:

o    Telephone surveys

o    Online surveys

o    Focus groups

o    Surveys via websites

·         Which of the above examples of survey research you would like to use if you were collecting data, and why?

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines and include at least two references.

Sampling is technique for determining how much data should be collected and how frequently it should be collected. 
This tool specifies how many samples should be taken to quantify system, process, issue, or problem.


Consider loaf of bread as an example of sampling. 
What is the quality of the bread? 
Is it essential to devour the entire loaf to find out? 
No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no 
Only sample of the loaf, such as slice, is required to form judgment about the complete loaf. 
The population of the study in this example is the loaf of bread being investigated. 
The slice of bread represents subset or portion of the population.


Consider full-fledged bakery. 
The population of interest is no longer loaf, but all of the bread produced today. 
For this bigger population, sample size of one slice from one loaf is clearly insufficient. 
The sample will now be divided into various loaves of bread that will be eaten at specific times throughout the day. 
The sample will be greater because the population is larger. 
The sample size necessary grows in proportion to the size of the population.


Bread is manufactured in continuous process in bakery, for example. 
That is to say, bread was created yesterday, continues to be made today, and will be made tomorrow. 
Samples must be gathered from an ongoing process to determine how it is changing over time. 
Control charts can be used to look at how the samples change over time to see where and how the process can be improved, as well as anticipate future performance.


The bakery, for example, is concerned with the weight of the loaves. 
The bakery does not want to weigh each and every loaf because it would be extremely costly, time-consuming, and inaccurate compared to sampling some of the loaves. 
Taking little samples often throughout time is how you sample for improvement and monitoring. 
The questions are now:


How many loaves do you weigh each time you take sample?


How often should sample be taken?


“How much?” and “How often?” are the two most important questions in sampling.
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