Discussion Participation on Advanced Pharmacology

Reply to this initial post by 2 students in a form of conversation that will bring out a question, for each response with citations. Half a page each.ensuring that you are giving the author(s) proper credit in proper format for their work. In this course, you are allowed to use APA 7th edition.  reply posts should be no more than 350 words. For grading criteria, see Discussion Board Participation Rubric.Discussion Board Response 1Response 1When selecting the most appropriate drug therapy for a patient, the practitioner must consider several factors, including: patient allergies, age/genetics, infection site, and affordability, amongst others (Woo & Robinson, 2020). Penicillins are typically the initial drug of choice, if the susceptibility permits, due to the lower incidence of toxicities and drug interactions (Woo & Robinson, 2020). However, although only 10% of patients react negatively to Penicillins, they are the “most likely antibiotics to cause an allergic reaction” (Woo & Robinson, 2020, p. 718). According to Woo & Robinson (2020), Amoxicillin is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic in the United States today. Amoxicillin is considered an orally effective broad spectrum antibiotic as it covers many common infectious conditions including: upper respiratory infections, sexually transmitted infections, pneumonia, infectious wounds, prophylactic care in dentistry to avoid endocarditis, and “eradication of Helicobacter pylori in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease” (Woo & Robinson, 2020, p. 719).One issue, which increases bacterial resistance to penicillins, is the ability of certain bacteria to produce enzymes known as penicillinase or beta-lactamase (Arcangelo et al., 2017). These enzymes inactivate the antibiotic and allow bacterial growth to continue; thus, research lead to the development of beta-lactamase inhibitors that can be combined with penicillins, such as Amoxicillin, to enhance their effect, and further enhance their spectrum of use (Arcangelo et al., 2017).ReferencesArcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice a practical approach (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.Woo, T. M., & Robinson, M. V. (2020). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurse prescribers. F.A. Davis Company.Response 2Question #6: List uses of MetronidazoleMetronidazole can be used to treat bacterial and parasitic infections. Common protozoan infections that can be treated with Metronidazole include T. vaginalis (Trichomonas), G. lamblia (Giardiasis), E. histolytica (Amebiasis) as well as the guinea worm (Woo & Robinson, 2020).Certain bacterial infections that can be life-threatening and treated with Metronidazole in the hospital, include bacterial vaginosis, Clostridium difficile, H. pylori and peptic ulcer disease (Woo & Robinson, 2020).Metronidazole is also indicated for the treatment of severe hepatic or renal disease.  It is Pregnancy Category B and not recommended for use with nursing mothers.  It is however, recommended to take the drug with food to avoid GI upset and to avoid alcohol during its course (Woo & Robinson, 2020). For pregnant women who have a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, Metronidazole can be prescribed orally for treatment (Woo & Robinson, 2020).  This drug can also be prescribed for pregnant women who have a diagnosis of vaginal trichomoniasis as perinatal transmission is possible.  This treatment is recommended since the benefits of reducing transmission to the fetus is critical and research has not definitely shown that the pregnancy is positively or negatively affected.  Metronidazole is also used topically as an emollient gel cream for the treatment of acne rosacea, however it isabsorbed in very small amounts (Woo & Robinson, 2020).                                                                 ReferenceWoo, T. M. & Robinson, M. V. (2020). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurse prescribers (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.

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