How to Cite A Research Paper APA/MLA/ and Chicago Formats

How to Cite A Research Paper APA/MLA/ and Chicago Formats

Do writing research papers give you a headache? Does citing every source you have used in the research paper stress you out? Well, you are not alone. Most students have no idea how to cite a research paper in APA, MLA, and Chicago formats. In this article, we take the burden off your plate. Take a read to find out how you can master research paper writing like a competent scholar.

Journal article from a library database with DOI – one author

What is a DOI number?

A (DOI) digital object identifier is a unique number allocated to some online content.

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While citing a research paper in APA, journal articles from a library database with one author should follow the following format.

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle, if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first-page number-last page number. https://DOI number

For example

Clarke. (2021) Child psychology. The effects of divorce on children, 28(7) 180-201. https://DOI.org.18/1117/rev3333150

In-text citation: author’s last name, year

(Clarke, 2021)

When quoting: Author’s last name, year-page number

(Clarke, 2021, p.180)

Journal articles from a library with DOI 2 -20 authors

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given, & the Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle, if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first-page number-last page number. https://DOI number

Use commas to separate the authors’ last names. When listing the final author, use an ampersand & before the comma.

Example

Yves, P.O, Alli, D.A, Pochettino, & Frank. The Influence of Tiktok On Digital Marketing.  The Journal of Digital Marketing 4(2) 300-350 https://DOI.org.12/0009/rev1212420

Journal article from a library database with DOI -one author

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle, if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first-page number-last page number.

The APA 7th edition requires that you should not include the URL to the journal database or homepage without a DOI

For example

David, N.2009. The gods must be crazy. African Literature, 36(40), (109-113)

In-text paraphrase (author’s last name, year)

(David, 2009)

When quoting

(Author’s last name, year, p. Page number)

(David, 2009, p.123)

Journal article from a website

For one author

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle, if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number if given). URL author

In-text citation

(Author’s Last Name, Year)

(Trapp, 2020)

For two authors

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of page. Title of Website. URL

Example

Pius, K.K., & Job, T. (2010). The Meditations. 10 Lessons from Julius Caesar. www.juliusceaser.com

In-text citations

(Pius & Job, 2010)

Journal article in print media

The APA recommends that you use the DOI number, if given, whenever you cite a journal article in print media.

Example

Seth, B. (2006). The ray of hope. A New Dawn, 15(31), 15–35.

In-text

(Seth, 2006)

For two authors

Seth. & Jamie. (2006). The ray of hope. A New Dawn, 15(31), 15-35

In-text

(Seth & Jamie, 2006)

For more than two authors

Seth, B., Jamie. G., & Marcus, G.K. (2006). The ray of hope. A New Dawn, 15(31),15-35

In-text

(Seth, et al., 2006)

Works with the same author and same year

Sometimes when citing research papers in APA, you might have to cite research papers from the same author or perhaps the same year. When citing two different sources sharing one same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters after the year of publication (a, b, c, etc.).

Assign these letters according to which title comes first alphabetically.

Use these letters in both in-text citations and the Reference list.

For example:

The cremation rate in the United States has increased steadily, with the national average rate rising from 3.56% in 1960 to 53.1% in 2018. (Michael, 2015a). Projections from the Cremation Association of North America forecasting a rate of 59.4% in 2023. (Michael, 2015b, p. 18).

Example Reference List entries:

Michael, B (2015a). Cremation Statistics. Cremation in the US, 46(29), 48-59.

Michael, B. (2015b). Cremation Statistics. Cremation in the future US, 24(4), 8-15.

In-text citations for Groups or corporate authors

When doing research, you might find yourself in a situation whereby the source has a group of authors or corporate authors. And you asked yourself, how can I cite this in a research paper? Don’t worry. Here is how you should cite groups or corporate authors.

There are two common types of groups

Groups readily identified by abbreviations

For example, the Centre for Disease Control (CDC)

For the first time use: (Centre for Disease Control [CDC], 2019)

Subsequently use: (CDC, 2019)

When quoting: (Centre for Disease Control [CDC], 2019, p. 120)

Subsequent quoting: (CDC, 2019, p. 120)

Groups with no abbreviation

First-time use: (Oxford University Press, 2005)

Subsequent use: (Oxford University Press, 2005)

When quoting; (Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 150)

Indirect sources

Another tricky thing for students is citing indirect sources.

Let us say you come across a fact in a journal by Michael citing Lucas. The appropriate way is to cite the New York Times. This is how you will cite.

Lucas (2011as cited by Michael, 2018) argued that …..

The reference lists

All the in-text items must appear in the reference list area at the end of your research paper. The primary purpose of a reference list is to show the reader all the sources used in case the reader wants to follow up.

In APA referencing papers, it should include:

  • Be double spaced
  • List works with no author under the first significant word of the title
  • Indent second and subsequent lines of each entry (5-7 spaces).
  • include all your references in one alphabetical listing from A – Z regardless of format, i.e., books or online sources
  • List references on a new page with a centered heading titled: References.
  • Order entries alphabetically by surname of the author(s)

Citing tables and figures

Tables are numerical values or text displayed in

Rows and columns

Figures include photographs. Maps, graphs, drawings, and charts

Always remember to reference tables and figures by their numbers in the text

For instance

As illustrated in figure 4

Number the figure and tables in the order in which they appear in the text

All figures and tables must be referred to in the text in the main body

2. How to cite a research paper in MLA

The following guide should help you cite your sources in any essay writing. After reading this guide, you will be able to list all the work cited and in-text citations as per the MLA eighth edition.

The following list includes some of the most common sources included in a Works Cited page. For more information, see pages 144-235 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th edition

Book by a Single Author

Last Name, First Name, and Initial (if given). Title. Location: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.

Jeffery, John R. Nursing Diaries: The Impact of Corona Virus Vaccine on Black and Latino Americans. New York: Pantheon, 2021. Print.

Book by Two or More Authors

Last Name, First Name and Initial (if given), and First Name Last Name. Title. Location: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.

Welsch, Roger L., and Linda K. Welsch. Cather’s Kitchens. Lincoln: University of Nebraska P. 1987. Print.

NOTE: If a reference has more than three authors, give the first author’s name and “et al.” Example: Jones, Bob, et al.

Text in an Anthology or Edited Book

Last Name, First Name (of the author of the article). “Article Title.” Anthology Title. Ed. First Name Last Name (of the editor). Location: Publisher, Year. Pages. Medium of Publication.

Gomez, Isabel. “From Within.” Stories from the South. Ed. Thomas Nitsche. New York: Plume, 1992. 82-92. Print.

Article in a Reference Book

“Article Title.” Book Title. Edition Number. Publication Year.

Medium of Publication.

“Noon.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. Print.

Article in a Magazine

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Magazine Title Day Month Year: pages. Medium of Publication.

Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. “Exploding Myths.” New Republic June 6, 1998: 17-19. Print.

Article in a Journal

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume Number. Issue (Year): pages. Medium of Publication.

Craner, Paul M. “New Tool for an Ancient Art.” Computers and the Humanities 25.2 (1991): 303-13.

Article in a Newspaper

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper Day Month Year: pages. Medium of publication.

Jones, Anna. “Deadly Change.” Daily Post June 1, 2002: B3+. Print.

NOTE: If the newspaper is a less well-known or local publication, include the city name and state in brackets after the title of the newspaper.

Personal Interview or Communication

Last Name, First Name (person being interviewed). Interview type (Personal, Telephone, E-mail). Day Month Year.

Takyrbashev, Lewis P. E-mail interview. 8-12 June 2003.

Entire Website

(Include all information that is available and applicable.)

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, November 28, 2003. Web. May 10, 2006.

Work from Library Subscription Service

(The first part of the citation will vary, depending on whether the work comes from an online book, periodical article, etc.

[See MLA Handbook, pages 216-224]. For works from print sources, give all standard information for such a source that is provided.)

Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of the Internet site or Database Ed. First name Last

Name. Identifying volume number (Date of Publication): (If no vol. number is available, date of

publication appears without parenthesis) page no. Name of Publisher. Web. Day Month Year when

the source was accessed.

Kunkel, Louis M. “Cloning of the DMD Gene.” American Journal of Human Genetics.

YouTube video

In MLA citing for a research paper, it follows the following format when you want to cite a YouTube video. The MLA works cited section includes the video title, creator, and platform. In this case, it is YouTube  ( in italics ), the individual uploading the video, the date it was uploaded, and the URL to the video.

However, in MLA dissertation writing, sometimes you might not find the name of the video’s creator, so you will have to omit this section.

In-text citations of annotated bibliography should be similar to the first details appearing in the works cited section. In most cases, it is the creator’s name or a short version of the title of the video

For example

In-text citation

(Martin, 10:15-26:40) Parenthetical

Martin (10:15-26:40) Narrative

In Works cited

Martin, Fred. “How to Cite YouTube Videos in MLA.” YouTube, uploaded by Toptutors4me, June 1. 2021, www.youtube.com/watch?p=3y7UBqOnhTT.

Play

When referencing papers, you might be required to reference your paper in MLA format. In case you come across a play. Here is how you should cite it.

When quoting dialogues from a play, you must indent and include the character’s name in capital, followed by a period.

In-text citation

If the text of the play has the act, scene, and line numbers, replace the page number with the act, scene, and line numbers and separate these details using periods

For example

(Bertolt 4.3.18–20)

Otherwise, use the author’s last name and page number

(Bertolt, 14)

Plays in the MLA works cited list

This section contains the full information of all the sources cited in the text. All sources appearing in the text must also appear in the works cited list. Listing plays in the MLA works cited list is subject to how it was published. Whether it was published as a whole book, performed live, or collected as an anthology.

For live performance

Author last name, First name. Play Title. Directed by Director first name Last name, Publisher, Day Month Year, Theater Name, City. Performance.

If the play was collected as an anthology

Author last name, First name. Play Title. Collection/Anthology Title, edited by Editor first name Last name, Publisher, Year, Page range.

NOTE: include a period after the title of the play and then the details of the book in which it appears.

If the play was published as a book, it will be cited like other MLA book citations

Author last name, First name. Play Title. Publisher, Year.

3. How to cite a research paper in Chicago format

The Chicago format was created to help researchers cite the sources used in a research paper.

Citing sources in Chicago format takes two approaches,

  • Notes and bibliography
  • Author-date

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Notes and bibliography style

The bibliography consists of all the sources used in the text. It contains the full information about these sources, and anyone should be able to find them.

  • The bibliography must follow the following format
  • The last name of the authors should be arranged alphabetically
  • The second line of the source must be indented
  • The bibliography must be double spaced.

What information is required for referencing research papers in the Chicago format

Publisher

Date of access

Publication year

URL or Name of Database

Author

Title of book/article

Title of newspaper/journal

City of publication

Page numbers

Publication month and date

The use of footnotes and endnotes in Chicago format

In Chicago descriptive essay outline or essay writing, you are required to use footnotes and endnotes when formatting bibliography, notes, and in-text citations. The footnotes and endnotes recognize the various sources used in the research paper.

Characteristics of the footnote and endnote

-Both the footnote and endnote contain all the information on the sources cited in the text

– Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page

– Endnotes are included at the end of the chapter or paper

– The matching number between the footnote and endnote should be in normal size. Do not raise.

Chicago format book citation

Footnote or endnote format   Author first name last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: publisher, year), page number(s).

Full note (first mention) Godsell Adanu, A Critical Analysis of the Impacts of Covid-19 on the Global Economy and Ecosystems and Opportunities for Circular Economy Strategies.” (New York: New York University Press, 2021), 44–45.

Short note (subsequent mentions) Adanu, A Critical Analysis of the Impacts of Covid-19 on the Global Economy and Ecosystems and Opportunities for Circular Economy Strategies, 89.

Bibliography format

Author last name, first name. Title of Book. Place of publication: publisher, year.

Bibliography example

Adanu, A Critical Analysis of the Impacts of Covid-19 on the Global Economy and Ecosystems and Opportunities for Circular Economy Strategies.” (New York: New York University Press, 2021).

Chicago Author-Date

In-text citation format   (Author last name year, page number(s))

In-text citation example (Adanu 2021, 44–45)

Reference list format   Author last name, first name. Year. Title of Book. Place of publication: publisher.

Reference list example   Adanu Godsell, A Critical Analysis of the Impacts of Covid-19 on the Global Economy and Ecosystems and Opportunities for Circular Economy Strategies.” (New York: New York University Press, 2021), 44–45.

Chicago newspaper citation

Chicago Notes and Bibliography

Footnote or endnote format

Author first name last name, “Title of Article,” Name of Publication, month date, year, page number, or URL.

Full note (first mention) Charlie Moore, “What Next for Newspapers as COVID news cycle fades,” New York Times, September 1, 2021, https://www.independent.co.uk/topic/new-york-times

Short note (subsequent mentions) Moore, “What Next for Newspapers as COVID news cycle fades.”

Bibliography format- Author last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Name of Publication, month date, year. URL if applicable.

Bibliography example   Moore, Charlie. “What Next for Newspapers as COVID news cycle fades,” New York Times, September 1, 2021, https://www.independent.co.uk/topic/new-york-times

Chicago Author-Date

In-text citation format   (Author last name year, page number if applicable)

In-text citation example (Moore, 2021)

Reference list format    Author last name, first name. Year. “Title of Article.” Name of Publication, month date, year. URL if applicable.

Reference list example Moore, Charlie. “What Next for Newspapers as COVID news cycle fades,” New York Times, September 1, 2021, https://www.independent.co.uk/topic/new-york-times

Chicago journal article citation

Chicago Notes and Bibliography

Footnote or endnote format      Author first name last name, “Title of Article,” Name of Journal volume, no. Issue (month and year): page number(s). DOI if applicable.

Full note (first mention) Mauhan Brown, “Depression in childhood in adolescence: Child and Adolescents Psychiatry.” Oxford University Library Chronicle 96, no. 4–6 (summer 2002): 41. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3565713/

 

Short note (subsequent mentions)   – Brown, “Depression in childhood in adolescence, 96.”

Bibliography format   Author last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Name of Journal volume, no. Issue (month/season year): page range of the article. DOI if applicable.

Bibliography example   Brown, Mauhan. “Depression in childhood in adolescence: Child and Adolescents Psychiatry.” Oxford University Library Chronicle 96, no. 4–6 (summer 2002): 41. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3565713/

Chicago Author-Date

In-text citation format  (Author last name year, page number(s)

In-text citation example (Brown 2002, 96)

Reference list format  Author last name, first name. Year. “Title of article.” Name of journal volume, no. Issue (month/season): page range of the article. DOI if applicable.

Reference list example Brown, Mauhan. “Depression in childhood in adolescence: Child and Adolescents Psychiatry.” Oxford University Library Chronicle 96, no. 4–6 (summer 2002): 41. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3565713/

Chicago website citation

Chicago Notes and Bibliography

Footnote or endnote format

“Title of Page,” Website, accessed month date, year, URL.

Full note (first mention) “Hitler’s Gamble,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, accessed September 1, 2021, https://www.britannica.com/.

Short note (subsequent mentions) “Hitler’s Gamble.”

Bibliography format   Website. “Title of Page.” Accessed month date, year. URL.

Bibliography example   Britannica Encyclopedia. “Hitler’s Gamble.” Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/.

Chicago Author-Date

In-text citation format   (Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d.)

In-text citation example (Encyclopaedia Britannica, n.d.)

Reference list format Britannica Encyclopedia, n.d. “Hitler’s Gamble.” Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/.

The bottom line

If you need to be a credible student or scholar, you must cite your sources. You ought to acknowledge the sources you used to come up with your research paper. By learning how to cite a research paper in APA, MLA, and Chicago. Do you need any help with writing your research paper? Contact us today.

 

 

 

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