Biology Principles

Bio 1200: Anatomy and Physiology II Formal Writing Assignment Rationale Understanding the basic biology principles is key to being successful in anatomy and physiology or any related fields (nursing, pre-physical therapy, pre-physician, etc.). Students focus more on memorizing these basic principles and are often lost when the emphasis is made on understanding structure and function. Instead of memorizing, students form the connection early on to be successful in their respective allied health fields or explain complex terminology to non-science people. Listed below are the goals that are to be achieved in the completion of this assignment: • Students can relate Anatomy and Physiology topics to disorders/diseases they might encounter (news, family, or friends). • Introduce students to the research that drives the development of treatments for the disorders/diseases. • Provide the opportunity for the student to convey the information to someone who lacks a scientific background. Assignment Each student will pick one of 30 topics. If the topic reached capacity (four students per topic), please have three potential backup topics. Students will notice that most of the topics are multisystemic. Whether the topic covers one system or multiple systems, students are responsible for the following: • Look for a clinical case study (or clinical case reports) about the topic. The clinical case study must come from a reputable journal—the most common place to find case studies in the New England Journal of Medicine. The case study acts as the paper template, which means that the person described is the student’s patient. Students will explain how the disorder developed, symptoms, and treatments to the patient or friend/family member about what is happening. • Students will review background information (review and research articles) to understand the topic. • Based on the case study, students should be able to answer the following questions: a. What is the likely mechanism for the disorder? Or what caused the disorder? – As students evaluate the clinical case study, they will notice a few cut-n-dry (not textbook) cases. Students will explain why the disease manifested. This question allows students to analyze the physiological changes, which allows for the rationale for therapy and prognosis. For instance, the cause of pernicious anemia is the inability to absorb vitamin B-12. Instead of memorizing this fact, students should think that the destruction of the parietal cells by immune cells results in decreased intrinsic factor production. Thus, the lack of intrinsic factor will cause a decrease in vitamin B-12 absorption. Clinical case studies will report autoimmune gastritis or a gastric disease that will affect parietal cell development. b. What is the likely cellular response to a certain change in the environment? – The environment is a loose term. Macroscopic and microscopic responses are essential in understanding how the individual cell or organ adapts to stressors (chemical, trauma, genetic, etc.). For instance, erythrocyte (red blood cell) production is due to the hormone erythropoietin. Erythropoietin is produced mainly by the kidney, but the liver and spleen produce some erythropoietin. The oxygen levels in the body regulate erythropoietin levels. When oxygen levels fall, erythropoietin level Bio 1200: Anatomy and Physiology II Formal Writing Assignment increases, thus causing an increase in red blood cell production. While, if oxygen levels increase, erythropoietin levels will decrease. For a student with the topic of sickle cell anemia use a case study that mentioned kidney disease, the student is then tasked with explaining why a decrease in kidney function would exacerbate (worsen) sickle cell anemia symptoms. c. With references to cellular and biochemical processes, explain the clinical symptoms expected? – Most good clinical cases will mention a cellular and biochemical process. Understanding the underlying processes allows students to explore the relationships between microscopic physiology and clinical symptoms and signs. For example, a patient experiencing signs of pernicious or sickle cell anemia can experience weight loss, jaundice, numbness, and tingling of the hands, to name a few symptoms. Students have the opportunity to explain the relationship between how the disease was detected from subclinical symptoms (symptoms that might have arisen before) and clinical symptoms that lead to the diagnosis. d. What is the likely disease process based on the graphs and charts presented in either the clinical article or a research article? – Good clinical cases present a chart of the lab data, histological views, ultrasound figures, etc. Interpretation of data is critical in understanding the correlation between the graphic/chart data and the physiological process. For instance, a hematocrit is a tool used to measure the percentage of red blood cells in the blood. The normal reference range for an adult male hematocrit is between 41.9 – 53.0%. A 62-year-old male has a hematocrit of 18.7%; then, we know there is an issue with his red blood cell production. This will also cause symptoms to manifest that relate to anemia. e. What is the likely mechanism being affected by medication or treatments? – Understanding the cellular and biochemical response is not only crucial for studying the mechanism behind the disease, but it is also crucial in understanding the course of treatment. For instance, someone with sickle cell anemia that is suffering from kidney disease might be treated with dialysis, placed on an organ transplant list, and give synthetic erythropoietin. Understanding the reasoning for the treatment is essential for a patient’s survival and quality of life. Guidelines This formal writing assignment is an expository essay, which is not the same as a paper about a disorder. An expository essay is a verbal explanation of a concept to an individual. In this case, students are the doctor/nurse practitioner/physician assistant who has to explain the disorder (concept) to the clinical case patient or friend/family of the person in the clinical case(individual). The audience that students are writing for is someone who lacks a scientific background. Ensure that students give a thorough, comprehensive, and clear explanation when addressing questions. The paper should reflect the effort students placed in completing the assignment and summarization of complex concepts. Spelling, grammar, and quality of reference (i.e., clinical case and supporting documents) are incorporated into the project grade. Students’ paper’s text portion must be 5 – 8 typewritten pages in length, using 12-point font, preferably Time New Roman, Arial or Calibri, and double spaced. Students’ references must follow a consistent format and not count as part of the 5 – 8-page text requirement. A copy of the clinical case should accompany the paper (see the syllabus due dates). Bio 1200: Anatomy and Physiology II Formal Writing Assignment Citations Students are to use the APA (American Psychological Association) style of citation, which is not to be confused with writing a paper using the APA style, which means no title page, abstract, or subheading throughout the paper. APA in-text citation follows the author-date method. Students should not use direct quotes in their paper; rather, they will paraphrase ideas from others’ work. Most non-science APA guidelines use in-text references that use page numbers; however, students will omit the page number when quoting a reference in-text for this paper. The page number of journals or books will be placed in the reference list at the end of the paper. There are two ways to reference paraphrased statements: 1. The low absorption from the GIT suggested by Abou-Donia et al. (2008)… 2. …are superior to conservative therapies in managing type 2 diabetes (Mingrone et al., 2012; Raghow, 2013). For the paper, students will use the second style of reference to place the sources in parenthesis and not directly quoted. Single and two author sources will only use the last names followed by the year of publication (example: Smith, 2017 or Smith and Jones 2002). More than two authors are cited using the first author’s last name, followed by the phrase “et al.” in every citation. When two or more citations are included in a grouping within a sentence, the citations within grouping are arranged in chronological order. Multiple citations for a given year are further arranged alphabetically. Example: … it is controversial whether sleeve gastrectomy has the same effect for lower BMI patients (Lee et al., 2011 a, b; Al 2014). For more information, please visit Purdue University Online Writing Lab for in-text citation: basics and in-text citation: author/authors. Students may include several of one type and none of others, or students may use one or more references of each type shown in these examples. Do not include the phrase “Book”, “Magazine” or other such designation in your citations. For more information, please visit Purdue University Online Writing Lab for reference list: basic rules and reference list: author/authors. Book Boyle, M.A. and S. Long, 2013. Personal Nutrition. (8th ed) Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, California. Technical article Reynolds, L.P., M.C. Wulster-Radcliff, D.K. Aaron and T.A. Davis, 2015. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security. J/ Nutr. 145:1377 – 1379. Dissertaion/Thesis Schindler, J. 2010. The effect of Nutrition Education on Children’s Healthy Food Choices. Bachelor of Science Thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia. Website Haraminac, E. 2015. Eating the right food for a healthy body and bones. Michigan State University Extension. Available at: Accessed July 27, 2015. Topics for the Assignment Bio 1200: Anatomy and Physiology II Formal Writing Assignment Each student will choose one of the following topics (have three backup topics): Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Pernicious Anemias Polycystic Kidney Disease Hypopituitarism Thalassemia Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Graves’ Disease Sickle Cell Disease Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Diabetes mellitus Cardiomyopathy Chronic Granulomatous Disease Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Endocarditis Acute Myeloid Leukemia Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Ischemic Heart Disease Mastocytosis Celiac Disease Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Uterine Fibroids Crohn’s Disease Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Endometriosis Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pneumonia Prostate Cancer Pancreatitis Pyelonephritis Erectile Dysfunction

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