Benchmark: Evidence-Based Practice Project

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Benchmark: Evidence-Based Practice Project

Benchmark -Evidence-Based Practice Project: Literature Review NUR 550

The purpose of this assignment is to write a review of the research articles you evaluated in your Topic 5 “Evidence-Based Practice Project: Evaluation of Literature” assignment. If you have been directed by your instructor to select different articles in order to meet the requirements for a literature review or to better support your evidence-based practice project proposal, complete this step prior to writing your review.

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A literature review provides a concise comparison of the literature for the reader and explains how the research demonstrates support for your PICOT. You will use the literature review in this assignment in NUR-590, during which you will write a final paper detailing your evidence-based practice project proposal.

In a paper of 1,250-1,500, select eight of the ten articles you evaluated that demonstrate clear support for your evidence-based practice and complete the following for each article:

  • Introduction – Describe the clinical issue or problem you are addressing. Present your PICOT statement.
  • Search methods – Describe your search strategy and the criteria that you used in choosing and searching for your articles.
  • Synthesis of the literature – For each article, write a paragraph discussing the main components (subjects, methods, key findings) and provide rationale for how the article supports your PICOT.
  • Comparison of articles – Compare the articles (similarities and differences, themes, methods, conclusions, limitations, controversies).

Literature Synthesis, Part B

The article by Greenwood et al. (2017) is associated with weaknesses that include its failure to use human subjects to determine the effect of the intervention and use of studies that were prone to bias. However, since there is a shortage in the evidence on the intervention, the article informs the importance of technology in diabetes management. Further, Hashmi and Khan (2018) is associated with the strength that it used human subjects to determine the effect of the intervention. However, it has weaknesses that include the small sample used in the research and lack of direct focus on patients with diabetes. Xu et al. (2018) is superior to the earlier articles due to its use of patients with diabetes. There is also a focus on other metrics of care besides level of Hb A1c. However, the small samples size makes its findings not generalizable to a larger population. Nevertheless, it is an important source of evidence on the efficacy of the intervention in adherence to diabetes treatment. Yoshida et al. (2018) is associated with the strength that it used multiple studies on the topic. The findings can therefore be generalized to a larger population of patients with diabetes. However, it has weaknesses that include lack of use of human subjects and studies that were prone to biases. Lastly, Huang et al. (2019) has the highest level of quality of evidence when compared to the above. This can be seen by the methods that were utilized and minimization of bias through randomization. Therefore, it can be utilized as a vital source of evidence in this research.

Areas of Further Study

The studies addressed above revealed that indeed the use of technology can address the issue of type 2 diabetes in African-Americans. However, the studies did not use African-American patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, there is a need for a study that focuses on the use of health information technologies in these patients to bridge the gaps in evidence. Further, the extrapolation of the effectiveness of technology to other populations has not occurred (Hunt, 2015). In addition to focusing on African-American, there is need to conduct studies that will reveal the manner in which the adoption of the aforesaid intervention will affect other populace.

  • Suggestions for future research: Based on your analysis of the literature, discuss identified gaps and which areas require further research.
  • Conclusion – Provide a summary statement of what you found in the literature.
  • Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA style and formatting criteria and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as an appendix at the end of your paper. Benchmark -Evidence-Based Practice Project: Literature Review NUR 550

Refer to the “Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal – Assignment Overview” document for an overview of the evidence-based practice project proposal assignments.

You are required to cite eight peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

MBA-MSNMSN-Nursing Education; MSN Acute Care Nurse Practitioner-Adult-Gerontology; MSN Family Nurse Practitioner; MSN-Health Informatics; MSN-Health Care Quality and Patient Safety; MSN-Leadership in Health Care Systems; MSN-Public Health Nursing

3.2: Analyze appropriate research from databases and other information sources to improve health care practices and processes.

Course Code Class Code Assignment Title Total Points
NUR-550 NUR-550-O503 Benchmark -Evidence-Based Practice Project: Literature Review 175.0

Criteria Percentage Unsatisfactory (0.00%) Less Than Satisfactory (80.00%) Satisfactory (88.00%) Good (92.00%) Excellent (100.00%)
Content 70.0%
Introduction 5.0% The clinical issue or problem and PICOT statement are omitted. The clinical issue or problem and PICOT statement are incomplete or incorrect. The clinical issue or problem and PICOT statement are presented. Some aspects are vague. There are minor inaccuracies. The clinical issue or problem and PICOT statement are adequately described. The clinical issue or problem and PICOT statement are thoroughly described. Benchmark -Evidence-Based Practice Project: Literature Review NUR 550

Search Methods 10.0% The search strategy and criteria used in choosing and searching for articles are omitted. The search strategy and criteria used in choosing and searching for articles are only partially described. The search strategy and criteria used in choosing and searching for articles are summarized. More information is needed. The search strategy and criteria used in choosing and searching for articles are described. Some detail is needed for clarity or accuracy. The search strategy and criteria used in choosing and searching for articles is thoroughly described.

Benchmark -Evidence-Based Practice Project: Literature Review NUR 550 Synthesis of Literature 10.0% A paragraph for one or more article is missing. All articles are presented, but the synthesis of literature is incomplete. A summary for each article is presented. The main components (subjects, methods, key findings) are generally discussed. General rationale for how each article supports the PICOT is provided. More information is needed. A paragraph for each article is presented. The main components (subjects, methods, key findings) are adequately discussed, and rationale for how each article supports the PICOT is provided. Some detail is needed for clarity or accuracy. A well-developed paragraph for each article is presented. The main components (subjects, methods, key findings) are thoroughly discussed, and substantial rationale for how each article supports the PICOT is clearly provided.

Comparison of Articles 10.0% One or more article is missing in the comparison. All articles are presented, but the comparison is incomplete. A general comparison of the similarities, differences, themes, methods, conclusions, limitations, and controversies among the articles is presented. Some aspects are unclear. More information is needed. A comparison of the similarities, differences, themes, methods, conclusions, limitations, and controversies among the articles is adequately presented. Some detail is needed for clarity or accuracy. A detailed comparison of the similarities, differences, themes, methods, conclusions, limitations, and controversies among the articles is thoroughly presented.

Suggestions for Future Research 10.0% Identified gaps and areas requiring further research are omitted. Identified gaps and areas requiring further research are only partially presented. Some identified gaps and areas requiring further research are generally discussed. The narrative is generally based on the analysis of the literature. More information is needed. Identified gaps and areas requiring further research are adequately discussed. The narrative is based on the analysis of the literature. Some detail is needed for clarity or accuracy. Identified gaps and areas requiring further research are thoroughly discussed and clearly based on the analysis of the literature. The narrative is insightful and demonstrates an understanding of research analysis necessary for future study.

Conclusion 5.0% The conclusion is omitted. A conclusion is presented but fails to present a summary statement of what was found in the literature. The conclusion presents a vague summary statement of was found in the literature. There are inaccuracies. The conclusion presents an adequate summary statement of what was found in the literature. The conclusion is well-developed and presents a clear and accurate summary statement of what was found in the literature.

Ability to Analyze (C3.2) 10.0% The literature review presented does not demonstrate an ability to analyze appropriate research from databases and other information sources to improve health care practices and processes. The literature review presented does not consistently demonstrate an ability to analyze appropriate research from databases and other information sources to improve health care practices and processes. The literature review presented demonstrates a general ability to analyze appropriate research from databases and other information sources to improve health care practices and processes. The literature review presented demonstrates an adequate ability to analyze appropriate research from databases and other information sources to improve health care practices and processes. The literature review presented demonstrates a strong ability to analyze appropriate research from databases and other information sources to improve health care practices and processes.

Appendix 5.0% The appendix and required resources are omitted. The APA Writing Checklist is attached, but an appendix has not been created. The paper does not reflect the use of the APA Writing Checklist during development The APA Writing Checklist is attached and in the appendix. The APA Writing Checklist was generally used in development of the paper, but some aspects are inconsistent with the paper format or quality. The APA Writing Checklist is attached in the appendix. It is apparent that the APA Writing Checklist was used in development of the paper. The APA Writing Checklist is attached in the appendix. It is clearly evident by the quality of the paper that the APA Writing Checklist was used in development.

Required Sources 5.0% Sources are not included. Number of required sources is only partially met. Number of required sources is met, but sources are outdated or inappropriate. Number of required sources is met. Sources are current, but not all sources are appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content. Number of required resources is met. Sources are current and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Organization and Effectiveness 20.0%
Thesis Development and Purpose 7.0% Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear. Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose. Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

Argument Logic and Construction 8.0% Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative. Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) 5.0% Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Format 10.0%
Paper Format (Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) 5.0% Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent. Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct.

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) 5.0% Sources are not documented. Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Topic 7 DQ 1

Identify two major policy issues that affect the current state of health care delivery and population health equity in the United States (may be state or federal). What impact do these population health policies and initiatives have on advanced nursing practice?

Re: Topic 7 DQ 1

Maternal morbidity and mortality is often caused by factors such as cardiovascular disease and hypertension requiring care longer than two months postpartum. One-third of pregnancy related deaths occur between one week and one year after delivery, and almost 12% occur after the regular six-week postpartum visit. This had led to an increased recognition that postpartum women need comprehensive care beyond two months—therefore also need the insurance coverage to ensure continuity of services.

Women who qualify for Medicaid on the basis of pregnancy receive a variety of services including prenatal care, and labor and delivery services. Under current law, states must provide Medicaid coverage to all pregnant women who earn up to 138% of the federal poverty level (FPL) through two months postpartum and provide Medicaid coverage for the infant for the first year of birth. Extending Medicaid coverage beyond two months postpartum ensures access to services both during and after pregnancy (Association of State and Territory Health Officials, 2021).

Since 2015, legislators in at least seven states, as well as Congress, have introduced 15 bills to finance substance use disorder prevention and treatment activities by imposing a surcharge, tax, or fee on prescription opioids. Although none of these bills have been enacted, it is a new approach that states are exploring to combat the opioid epidemic. Proponents of the measures claim that as the opioid epidemic is driven, in part, by the over-marketing and over-prescribing of opioid painkillers, raising dedicated revenue from those drugs to address substance abuse prevention and treatment is necessary (Kramer, 2017)

Nursing care is a central component in key programs and strategies to promote maternal and infant outcomes. Example are evidence-based home-visiting programs, such as Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) which deploys RNs to visit first-time mothers in their homes for prenatal and postnatal care. NFP in particular has been found to have positive impacts on families, as well as positive cost outcomes. Incorporation of advanced registered nurses would help achieve the essence of the medicare coverage and reduce maternal mortality.

As educators and patient advocates, nurses are in a unique position to help patients with non-opioid pain management including other medication modalities, regional anesthetic interventions, surgery, psychological therapies, rehabilitative/physical therapy, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (ANA, 2018)

Reference

ANA (2018). The Opioid Epidemic: The Evolving Role of Nursing Retrieved from https://www.ncsbn.org/2018_ANA_Opioid_Epidemic.pdf

Association of State and Territory Health Officials (2021). How States are Using Policy to Reduce Maternal Mortality and Morbidity. Retrieved from https://www.astho.org/statepublichealth/how-states-are-using-policy-to-reduce-maternal-mortality-and-morbidity/07-21-21/

Kramer, K. T. (2017). State Legislatures Explore Taxing Prescription Opioids to Raise Revenue for Prevention and Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.astho.org/StatePublicHealth/State-Legislatures-Explore-Taxing-Prescription-Opioids-to-Raise-Revenue-for-Prevention-and-Treatment/3-23-17/

Topic 7 DQ 2

Select an effective current health policy that focuses on or affects population health. What components of this policy make it effective? Conduct research on its history and the factors that influenced its development.

Re: Topic 7 DQ 2
Policy and law are among the most operative tools to improve health. In the United States, the outcome of legal or policy intervention leads to public health success. However, most individuals do not understand the impacts of these interventions and methods it has on their general health and wellbeing. Population-based healthcare policy comprises the plans, courses of action, and directives required by law through customary practices without objections. Currently, the US government enacted the Medicaid and Medicare healthcare policy to provide medical and other health-related services to precise person individuals.

Medicaid and Medicare healthcare policy distinctly differ from each other. The social insurance program is illustrated by Medicare, while Medicaid is social protection or social welfare program (Perla et al., 2018). Among the low-income households, they are under Medicaid, which means tested medical services and tested heath. Qualifications under the program vary in different states, which each person must meet. On the other hand, older individuals and disabled persons are covered by the federal insurance program, which also funds the hospitals. The program includes different parts which provide flexibility and prescription drugs, parts C and D, and medical and hospital parts A and B (Perla et al., 2018). Globally; the healthcare policy is among the most effective and well-managed health insurance programs. Their effectiveness enables delivery of quality healthcare among the population, delivers better care, results in healthier individuals, and promotes better usage of the healthcare ransom wisely.

The Medicaid and Medicare programs historically have enormous influence over the practice of medicine, notwithstanding what congress wrote in 1965 (Perla et al., 2018). The programs were signed into law registration by President Lyndon B. Johnson. For the past 50 years, the health and wellbeing of the patients have been protected by the Medicaid and Medicare programs (Perla et al., 2018). They have also improved the economic security of the nation and save the lives of American individuals. Provision of healthcare coverage to the Americans aging population from 65 and above is the main factor that led to the adoption and implementation of the healthcare policy in the country.

References

Perla, R. J., Pham, H., Gilfillan, R., Berwick, D. M., Baron, R. J., Lee, P., … & Shrank, W. H. (2018). Government as innovation catalyst: lessons from the early Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation models. Health Affairs, 37(2), 213-221. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/abs/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.1109

Re: Topic 7 DQ 2
A healthcare policy that focuses on population health is improving tobacco control. The major problem in America is tobacco, which is the leading cause of death in this country. Nearly eight million people across the United States are affected by death due to smoking tobacco or clients affected by second-hand smoke. The particles of tobacco have addictive substances such as nicotine that make it quite challenging for smokers to quit (World Population Review, 2021). The policy to control smoking overall promotes longevity of life, improves respiratory health outcomes, decreases healthcare costs and lost productivity. This affects the health population on a state level and community level by providing programs that will prevent clients from beginning the habit of smoking, remove exposure to secondhand smoke, then identify the causes of tobacco-related disparities. Surveillance is a perfect method used to evaluate the program’s success, its outcomes in the attitudes and behaviors of staff members over time.

To determine if a policy is supported by evidence-based practice, one must ensure that the research and information are available at all stages of any policy process. Policymaking analyzes what works, as well as gaps where proof of performance improvement is absent or allows lawmakers to apply evidence in budget and policy adjustments (The Pew Charitable Trust, 2017). Measures that enhance important outcomes and use the information to maximize learning outcomes include eliminating unnecessary spending, growing innovative initiatives, and increasing accountability. The implementation of this process has been proven to be successful in many health organizations across the world. There is still research being done, and ways to improve policy-making are being supported by evidence-based practice.

The Pew Charitable Trust. (2017). Evidence-Based Policymaking A guide for effective government A report from the Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative. https://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/assets/2014/11/evidencebasedpolicymakingaguideforeffectivegovernment.pdf

World Population Review. (2021). Smoking Rates by Country 2020. Worldpopulationreview.com. https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/smoking-rates-by-country

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