Robert Cialdini is one of the best-known researchers on the topic of persuasion. He also has a book out by that same title: Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion.
Summarize some of the key findings/conclusions made by Cialdini’s research. In what ways has his research been criticized? What are some ways in which persuasion can be connected to social welfare and social change?
Methods of Childbirth U.S. hospitals often allow the mother and her obstetrician a range of options regarding their method of delivery. Key choices involve the use of medication, whether to use any of a number of nonmedicated techniques to reduce pain, and when to have a cesarean delivery.
Medication Three basic kinds of drugs that are used for labor are analgesia, anesthesia, and oxytocin/Pitocin. Analgesia is used to relieve pain. Analgesics include tranquilizers, barbiturates, and narcotics such as Demerol. Anesthesia is used in late first-stage labor and during delivery to block sensation in an area of the body or to block consciousness. There is a trend toward not using general anesthesia, which blocks consciousness, in normal births because general anesthesia can be transmitted through the placenta to the fetus (Pennell & others, 2011). An epidural block is regional anesthesia that numbs the woman’s body from the waist down. Oxytocin is a hormone that promotes uterine contractions; a synthetic form called Pitocin™ is widely used to decrease the duration of the first stage of labor. The relative benefits and risks of administering synthetic forms of oxytocin during childbirth continue to be debated (Bell, Erickson, & Carter, 2014; Shiner, Many, & Maslovitz, 2016). Predicting how a drug will affect an individual woman and her fetus is difficult (Ansari & others, 2016). A particular drug might have only a minimal effect on one fetus yet have a much stronger effect on another. The drug’s dosage is also a factor. Stronger doses of tranquilizers and narcotics given to decrease the mother’s pain potentially have a more negative effect on the fetus than do mild doses. It is important for the mother to assess her level of pain and have a voice in deciding whether she should receive medication.