Assignment: Nursing Theory / Case Study

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Assignment: Nursing Theory / Case Study

Assignment: Nursing Theory / Case Study

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You as the advanced practice nurse are working in a community health center. Your next patient is Mrs. Richards,  a 39 year-old Caucasian female, presenting to the clinic with a history of Hypothyroidism, Depression, and recent history of Substance Abuse (Heroine Use). During the initial interview, it is revealed that her husband and two children were killed in a traffic accident 8 months ago and she reports using illicit drugs since their death.

Based on your knowledge of the Health Promotion Model, make a chart and/or diagram that outlines all components of the theory and how the theory can be applied to this case study to formulate a plan of care for this patient. Also, list one scholarly, practice-based resource (article and/or clinical guideline) that supports the application of the Health Promotion Model in clinical practice.

The Health Promotion Model focuses on people’s interactions with their physical and interpersonal settings during attempts to improve health and strives to explain the variables underpinning desire to engage in health-promoting behaviors [14]. 
This paradigm stresses person’s active engagement in initiating and maintaining health-promoting habits, as well as in structuring their own environment to support them.
Individual qualities and experiences, activity-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral result are the three categories of factors that influence health-promoting behavior.


The model also identifies eight behavior-specific beliefs that are thought to influence health-promoting behavior and are suggested as targets for behavior change interventions: (1) perceived benefits of action, (2) perceived barriers to action, (3) perceived self-efficacy, (4) activity-related affect, (5) interpersonal influences (including norms, modeling/vicarious learning, and social support), (6) situational influences, (7) commitment to plan of action, and (8) commitment to plan of action.


Social media interventions can target one or more of these behavior-specific beliefs, and they’re especially beneficial for dealing with interpersonal influences and sticking to plan.


The Concept of Public Health Is Being Expanded


The New Public Health (Third Edition), Theodore H. Tulchinsky MD, MPH, Elena A. Varavikova MD, MPH, PhD, Theodore H. Tulchinsky MD, MPH, PhD, Theodore H. Tulchinsky MD, MPH, PhD, Theodore H. Tulchinsky MD, MPH, PhD, The


Models of Health Promotion at the State and Community Level


In Australia, where revenue from tobacco tax has been set aside for health promotion objectives in the state of Victoria, an effective strategy to health promotion has been created. 
This has the impact of discouraging smoking while also funding health promotion programs and providing focal point for health advocacy, such as pushing cigarette advertising cessation at sporting events or on television. 
It also permits community groups and local governments to receive aid in developing health promotion initiatives in the workplace, schools, and recreational settings. 
Occupational health activities include reducing workplace risks, promoting healthy diet and physical fitness, and avoiding risk factors such as smoking and alcohol abuse.


In the Australian approach, health promotion entails not only persuading people to modify their lifestyles, but also legislation and enforcement aimed at promoting healthy environmental improvements. 
Mandatory filtration, chlorination, and fluoridation of communal water supplies, as well as vitamin and mineral enrichment of fundamental meals, are examples. 
For more efficient and comprehensive care, primary care alliances of service providers are created, including hospitals and community health services servicing sub-district population. 
These are policies at the national or state level that are critical to health promotion program and community activity on the ground.


In variety of situations, community-based programs to reduce chronic disease using the notion of community-wide health promotion have emerged. 
The North Karelia Project in Finland was the first to implement program to minimize cardiovascular disease risk factors. 
This project was started as consequence of pressure from the province’s impacted people, which was aware of the high rate of heart disease mortality. 
Finland had the world’s highest CHD rates, and the rate in North Karelia’s rural areas was considerably higher than the national average. 
To lower CHD risk factors, the project was regional effort engaging all levels of society, including official and non-profit groups. 
There was significant drop in mortality after 15 years of follow-up, with comparable decline in nearby province used as reference, however the decline in North Karelia began earlier.


Community-wide action has evolved in many regions where health promotion has been undertaken as method, with NGOs or any valid community group serving as initiators or participants. 
Healthy Heart programs have grown in popularity thanks to health fairs hosted by philanthropic or fraternal societies, schools, or church groups, which serve as focal point for program development. 
An international movement of “Healthy Cities” has grown out of broader approach to tackling community health issues.


Health and Self-Efficacy


International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2001, by A. Bandura


Models for Childhood Health Promotion


Many unhealthy habits that last lifetime are acquired in childhood and adolescence (see Childhood Health). 
For example, unless young people start smoking as teenagers, they are unlikely to become smokers as adults. 
It’s far easier to avoid bad health habits than it is to change them after they’ve been ingrained in one’s lifestyle. 
For society initiatives to promote the health of its kids, the biopsychosocial model is helpful public health tool.


Health habits are passed down through the generations. 
However, schools play an important role in promoting country’s health. 
Because this is the only place where all children can quickly be reached, it provides an ideal environment for encouraging healthy habits and developing self-control.


Several essential components are included in effective health promotion models. 
The first element is educational. 
It informs people on the hazards and benefits of various lifestyle choices. 
The second part of the program focuses on improving social and self-control abilities so that informed concerns can be translated into effective preventive action. 
Self-monitoring of health behaviors, goal formulation, and enlisting of self-incentives for personal improvement are all examples of this. 
The third component fosters resilient feeling of self-regulatory efficacy, which aids in the exercise of control in the face of adversity. 
Personal change happens as result of web of social factors. 
Social factors can help, hinder, or undermine personal transformation efforts, depending on their nature. 
As result, the third component enlists and builds social support for desired changes in health habits (see Social Support and Health).


Efforts to increase youth health through education frequently provide disappointing results. 
They put lot of emphasis on didactics but not so much on personal empowerment. 
They provide factual health information, but they do nothing to equip children with the skills and self-beliefs they need to manage emotional and social pressures to engage in unhealthy behaviors. 
Managing health habits entails balancing emotional states and variety of societal forces that encourage unhealthy behavior, rather than focusing solely on changing single health behavior.


Health promotion programs that incorporate the self-regulatory model’s main parts help to avoid or minimize harmful health behaviours. 
Health information is easily transmitted, but changing values, attitudes, and health routines takes more effort. 
The larger the favorable changes, the more behavioral mastery experiences in the form of role enactments are delivered (Bruvold 1993). 
The greater the impact, the more intensive the program and the better the implementation (Connell et al. 1985). 
Comprehensive approaches that combine guided mastery health programs with family and community activities are more effective than programs that rely solely on schools to promote health and avoid the adoption of harmful health habits (Perry et al. 1992).


Addictions and Nursing


Nursing Clinics of North America, Kathleen Bradbury-Golas DNP, RN, NP-C, ACNS-BC, 2013.


Theoretical framework


The research was based on Pender’s revised health promotion model, which incorporates variety of components from expectancy-value and social cognition theories into holistic nursing approach.


Although sickness is included, it is not the most significant aspect in the model’s proposal for positive and humanistic definition of health. 
When people commit to changing their behavior, their response to the conduct boosts their self-efficacy, which enhances their likelihood of carrying out the behavior. 
As person achieves substance abstinence, their confidence in their ability to sustain the behavior grows, giving them the strength to continue their recovery. 
The model also suggests that when self-efficacy rises, the number of perceived barriers to particular health behavior (e.g., loss of high, withdrawal symptoms) reduces. 
In the end, though, if addicted drug users do not believe they can successfully quit, they will relapse and continue to use. 
Figure summarizes the framework for this study’s adopted aspects of the health promotion model.


To download high-resolution photograph, please log in.


Pender’s Revised Health Promotion Model was used to create theoretical diagram of study concepts.


(With permission from the University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Nursing.)


In Nigerian public hospitals, systematic review of factors impacting Type Diabetes Mellitus care was conducted.


International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, Stella Bosun-Arije,… Catherine Hayes, 2019.

Assignment: Nursing Theory / Case Study

Recommendations No. 6
Patients’ lifestyle options can possibly and favorably be influenced by health providers that use the empowerment model, biopsychosocial model, and health promotion model for the optimization of patients’ self-management. 
It is suggested that strategic plans for T2DM management in Nigerian public hospitals take into account the possible impact of social class, social capital, and organizational operations for low-cost T2DM management. 
In Nigeria, there is currently less research on clinical and organizational factors that influence T2DM management. 
Future research should look into the organizational elements that influence T2DM management in Nigerian public health settings.
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