Assignment: Forced Attitude Change

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Assignment: Forced Attitude Change

Assignment: Forced Attitude Change

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There are multiple mechanisms that may explain why value at encoding improves recognition. First, selective- attention is likely used, such that attentional resources are allocated to learning more valuable information. It is well documented that value automatically and involuntar- ily captures attention (Anderson, 2013; Hickey, Chelazzi, & Theeuwes, 2010; Kiss, Driver, & Eimer, 2009). Conversely, a commonly used and often effective learning strategy is to ignore low-value items (Robison & Unsworth, 2017). How-

ever, if value solely captures attention such that partici- pants maintain valuable information longer, but does not affect the depth of their encoding, we would expect to have observed increased familiarity for valuable items. This rea- soning follows from research suggesting that maintenance rehearsal predominantly enhances familiarity (Fawcett et al., 2016; Gardiner et al., 1994). Instead, the current find- ings suggest that value encourages deeper elaborative encoding and semantic processing, as these encoding strategies are linked with later recollection (Fawcett et al., 2016; Gardiner et al., 1994). This selective increase in elaborative encoding for high value items may render them more distinctive than low value items, which may also lead to a relative increase in recollection (Rajaram, 1998).

 and James M. Carlsmith (1959) conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study involved 71 male students from . The students were asked to perform a tedious task involving using one hand to turn small spools a quarter clockwise turn. The purpose was to make the task uninteresting and unexciting enough that none of the participants could possibly find it enjoyable.

The experimental condition involved telling the subject before the experiment started that it would be fun, while the  did not set any expectations for the task. The control subjects were asked to go to a room to be interviewed. The experimental condition involved giving either $1 or $20 to try to convince the next participant that the experiment was fun.

The results showed a significant difference between the groups. Another large difference was observed between the $1 and $20 groups. However, no  difference emerged between the $20 group and control group. The results indicate that the smaller reward group ($1) had convinced themselves that the experiment was fun.

In summary, this study concluded that if an individual performs an action that goes against what they initially believe, the belief will typically change.

Cognitive dissonance theory

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