Assignment: Cardiovascular System

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Assignment: Cardiovascular System

Assignment: Cardiovascular System

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  1. Identify and briefly discuss the body system selected for the topic of this paper ( Cardiovascular System)      
    1. Discuss the physiology (structure and function) of the body system including details about the major organ systems (if applicable)
    2. Discuss relevant health history questions (subjective data) pertaining to the body system
    3. Discuss an overview of the objective data and expected normal physical examination findings for this body system
    4. Discuss special physical assessment examination techniques or procedures specific to assessing this body system
    5. Discuss how you might adapt your physical assessment skills or techniques to accommodate each of the following specific populations:

i.  Infant/pediatric

ii.  Pregnancy

iii.  Geriatric

  1. Identify one major disease or disease process that may significantly impact this body system (Choose any you like)
  2. Discuss the expected abnormal physical examination findings that may be associated with this disease or disease process
  3. Summarize the key points
The heart, blood arteries, and blood make up the cardiovascular system. 
Its main job is to convey nutrients and oxygen-rich blood throughout the body, as well as to return deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Any or all components of the cardiovascular system might suffer from abnormalities or damage that can cause major health problems. 
Coronary artery disease, heart attack, excessive blood pressure, and stroke are all common disorders that can impact the cardiovascular system.


The cardiovascular system, including its components and functions, is the subject of this article. 
We also go through some of the most common cardiovascular disorders and their therapies.


The cardiovascular system’s components


The circulatory system
The mechanism in charge of providing blood to various regions of the body is known as Trusted Source. 
It is made up of the organs and tissues listed below:


The heart is muscle pump that helps circulate blood throughout the body.


blood artery system that is closed: 
The following vessels are among them:


Vessels that convey blood away from the heart are known as arteries.


Veins are blood vessels that return blood to the heart.


Capillaries are small blood veins that branch off from arteries to transport blood to all body tissues.


Source you can trust.


In the human body, there are two blood circulation systems. 
The first is the circulatory system as whole. 
This is the major blood circulation system that distributes blood throughout the body to organs, tissues, and cells.


The pulmonary circulatory system is the second. 
The circulatory system transports blood from the heart to the lungs. 
It’s where oxygen enters the bloodstream and carbon dioxide exits.




To interact with 3D representation of the circulatory system, click on the BodyMap above.


The heart’s structure


The heart is divided into four chambers: two upper chambers known as “atria” and two lower chambers known as “ventricles.” 
The atria and ventricles are separated by septum, or wall. 
The flow of blood between the chambers is controlled by valves.


The path of blood is as follows:


Through the heart, reliable source:


The inferior vena cava and superior vena cava veins return blood from the body and enter the right atrium (upper right chamber).


The tricuspid valve allows blood to flow into the right ventricle (lower right chamber).


The right ventricle pumps blood out of the heart via the major pulmonary artery and through the pulmonary valve.


The blood subsequently enters the lungs via the left and right pulmonary arteries. 
Breathing brings oxygen into the bloodstream while removing carbon dioxide. 
As result, the blood now contains lot of oxygen.


Four pulmonary veins return blood to the heart and run into the left atrium (upper left chamber).


The mitral valve allows blood to flow into the left ventricle (lower left chamber).


The left ventricle pumps blood into the “aorta,” major artery, via the aortic valve. 
This artery transports blood throughout the body.


The heart’s significance


The heart circulates blood through closed veins to all of the body’s tissues. 
The blood itself then transports nutrients and oxygen to all of the body’s cells. 
Without blood, cells and tissues would not be able to function to their full potential, causing them to malfunction and die.


What is the cardiac cycle, and how does it work?


There are two phases to the cardiac cycleTrusted Source.


Diastole is the first phase, during which the ventricles fill with blood. 
It begins with the closing of the aortic or pulmonary valves and ends with the closing of the mitral or tricuspid valves. 
Blood arteries return blood to the heart during diastole in preparation for the next ventricular contraction.


The ventricles contract and discharge blood during the second phase, systole. 
It begins with the closure of the mitral or tricuspid valves and ends with the closure of the aortic or pulmonary valves. 
When the pressure inside the ventricles exceeds the pressure inside nearby blood arteries, blood is forced from the ventricles to the vessels.


Cardiovascular disorders are very common.


Cardiovascular disease is serious condition that can be fatal. 
People who have better understanding of the disorders that can damage the cardiovascular system are more likely to seek appropriate and prompt medical treatment.


The following are brief descriptions of some prevalent cardiovascular illnesses.


Angina pectoris


When segment of the heart muscle does not receive enough blood, heart attack occurs. 
This can happen as result of blockage, tear in coronary artery, or if the heart needs more oxygen than is supplied.


heart attack manifests itself in variety of ways.


Source you can trust:


Shortness of breath, chest pain or discomfort, lightheadedness, pain or discomfort in the jaw, neck, or back, pain or discomfort in one or both arms or shoulders


The following are three major risk factors for heart attack:


high cholesterol levels in the blood


smoking and high blood pressure


People who have had heart attack can reduce their odds of having another heart attack by doing the following:


physical activity on regular basis


maintaining or achieving healthy weight through heart-healthy diet


smoking cessation


going through cardiac rehabilitation




stroke is medical disorder in which section of the brain’s blood supply is cut off. 
Brain cells die as result of the absence of blood flow.


Strokes can be divided into two categories. 
blood clot blocks blood flow to the brain, resulting in an ischemic stroke. 
hemorrhage in or near the brain can cause hemorrhagic stroke.


stroke can be caused by number of circumstances, including:


Diabetes and heart disease are linked to high blood pressure.




Being of African American ancestry and having personal or family history of stroke in later age


stroke’s symptoms appear suddenly and include:


visual difficulties in one or both eyes one-sided weakness or numbness of the leg, arm, or face


Having trouble speaking or understanding what is being said


severe headache, dizziness, loss of balance, or difficulty walking


The type of stroke will determine the treatment. 
Medications may be given to person who has had an ischemic stroke to help break up the blood clot and restore blood flow to the brain. 
If person has hemorrhagic stroke, surgery may be required to repair the bleeding blood vessel.


Following stroke, therapy options may include:


antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs to prevent the formation of new blood clots blood pressure medications known as statins to lower cholesterol levels in the blood physical therapy


treatment for rehabilitation


Speech-language pathology


Insufficiency of the heart


When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s demands, heart failure occurs.


Some of the signs and symptoms of heart failure include:


Source you can trust:


Exercise intolerance is characterized by chronic coughing or wheezing, as well as shortness of breath.


faster heartbeat




inability to eat


swelling sfatigue




Heart failure can be caused by number of reasons, including:


blood pressure that is too high


personal history of one of the following conditions: coronary artery disease


diabetes sleep apnea heart attack


heart defect (congenital)


Heart failure has no known remedy. 

But treatments can help to slow the progression of the disease and alleviate symptoms. 

Among the examples are: Trusted Source:


Dietary and exercise changes, as well as medical gadgets and surgical procedures, are examples of lifestyle changes.


blood pressure or cholesterol-lowering medicines

diuretics to reduce swelling, or edema

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