Assignment: Apps And Computer Programs

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Assignment: Apps And Computer Programs

Assignment: Apps And Computer Programs

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There are many apps and computer programs available to analyze your die.  Examples are MyFitnessPal,, SelfNutrition, and Cronometer, but you are welcome to find a different one and report on it.  Pick one and do not repeat one another student has selected.  What are the pros and cons of that app?  Does it provide an analysis of all the macro and micronutrients?  If not, which ones are left out and why is that bad? Are these nutrients found to be deficient in the US diet?

In general, the majority of Arab countries emphasise the importance of healthcare

professionals to respect human dignity, provide the best care available to patients and their

families, as well as protecting their rights, safety and confidentiality (UNESCO Cairo

Office 2011). Countries such as Jordan, Libya and Indonesia have gone further in their

efforts to take steps to include guidelines pertaining to certain end-of-life decisions in their

regulatory framework (Majelis Kehormatan Etik Kedokteran Indonesia 2001; UNESCO

Cairo Office 2011), while in other countries such as Malaysia and the UAE, the extent of

application of Islamic principles in the same area is uncertain, as specific provisions on the

subject matter have yet to be incorporated in their respective laws or ethical codes

(Malaysian Medical Association 2002; UNESCO Cairo Office 2011).

The intervention of law in the area of medicine has been regarded as pivotal, particu-

larly in offering clear guidance in issues that raise ethical, philosophical and religious

dilemmas. The law has been seen as a means of controlling the medical profession in the

interests of the community as a whole. As advocated by Lord Hoffman in Airedale NHS

Trust v Bland (‘‘Airedale NHS Trust v. Bland’’ 1993), ‘‘…medical ethics [is] to be formed by the law rather than the reverse’’ (‘‘Airedale NHS Trust v. Bland’’ 1993). However, legal

intervention in itself may cause problems particularly when the courts may find themselves

drawn in to act as mediators in complex and frequently distressing clinical matters. In any

event, judges have to make decisions to protect public policy and do justice to both the

patient and the doctor.

The judicial courts in Malaysia have yet to decide on issues involving end-of-life

decisions; thus, at the moment, such matters are considered to be purely medical decisions

(Kassim and Adeniyi 2010; Talib 2002). As the law in this area has yet to reach its fullest

extent, the developments in countries such as the UK and the USA have been able to shed

light on how conflicting ethical principles are resolved by the courts and the application of

different tests in their decisions. Accordingly, their experience would provide invaluable

lessons for Malaysia to develop holistic ethical codes that are in congruence with devel-

oping legal standards. This is because by virtue of section 3 of the Civil Law Act 1956, due

to the lacunae in Malaysian law on end-of-life decisions, English common law and the

rules of equity would be applicable as a source of reference for the courts.

The Scope of End-of-Life Care

End-of-life care refers to the health and social care system required to address the physical,

social, spiritual and emotional needs of patients who are in the final stages of their lives as

well as those who are afflicted with terminal illnesses (Colello et al. 2011; Tallon 2012).

From the healthcare perspective, end-of-life care encompasses both palliative care and

hospice care, which aim to provide a comfortable environment to restore and improve

patients’ quality of life as far as it is practically possible (Centre for Bioethics 2005; Chater

and Tsai 2008; Tallon 2012). The World Health Organization defines palliative care as ‘‘an

approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem

associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by

means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other

problems, physical, psychosocial and spiritual’’ (World Health Organisation n.d.).

Although both palliative care and hospice care share the same objectives, these two

areas should not be confused with one another. Palliative care focuses on reducing the

severity of disease symptoms for patients who are seriously ill, and can be delivered along

with curative treatment at any time during the course of the patient’s illness (Centre for

122 J Relig Health (2016) 55:119–134


Bioethics 2005; Colello et al. 2011). In addition, palliative care is not restricted to patients

near the end of life and can be used in both acute and long-term settings (Centre for

Bioethics 2005). Hospice care on the other hand is focused on terminally ill patients, who

no longer seek curative medical treatment, and is generally offered when the patient is

expected to live for 6 months or less (Colello et al. 2011). A salient similarity between

palliative care and hospice care is that both involve the mobilisation of an interdisciplinary

team of professionals comprising doctors, nurses, social workers and psychologists, with

the assistance of chaplains, nutritionists, pharmacists and others (Centre for Bioethics

2005; Colello et al. 2011).

The Ethical Considerations in End-of-Life Care

Conflicting ethical values between healthcare providers and patients may impede the

decision-making process in end-of-life care (Carey and Cosgrove 2006; Chater and Tsai

2008; Mazanec and Tyler 2003). On the part of the healthcare provider, respecting the

patient’s autonomy in the decision-making process may at times be inconsistent with the

performance of their ethical obligations of beneficence and non-maleficence. Ethical

challenges are further compounded in cases where the patient is incapable of interaction

and deciding for himself, whereby family members would stand in as proxy to decide what

would have likely been the wishes of the patient pertaining to a certain course of action.

The ethical considerations in end-of-life care which have raised ethical dilemmas can be

looked at from three aspects:

Withholding and Withdrawal of Medical Interventions

Medical interventions such as resuscitation, ventilators and the use of antibiotics in cases of

infection may operate to save and prolong the life of a terminally ill patient. However, such

treatments may run counter to the patient’s wishes who may request that the same be

withdrawn or refuse them altogether. For example, some patients may view cardiopul-

monary resuscitation as a death-delaying act, which contradicts with their values and

beliefs that one should not alter the course of nature (Markwell 2005; Mazanec and Tyler

2003; Sachedina 2005). In cases where the condition of the patient necessitates respiratory

therapy, some patients and family members may view it as a non-beneficial treatment

which only serves to impede in what they believe should be the natural process of dying

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