Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

Colonoscopy is an essential procedure that evaluates the colon mucosa for cancer, adenomas, and inflammation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the function of colonoscopy, the procedure followed when using colonoscopy, and the information generated. The paper will also outline the validity, reliability, sensitivity, and positive predictive values of colonoscopy.

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Colonoscopy in Healthcare

Colonoscopy acts as a diagnostic, elective, and therapeutic tool within healthcare settings. It is executed using a colonoscope, a hand-held flexible tube-like tool with a high-definition camera at the tip (Saito et al., 2021). The colonoscope also constitutes accessory channels that help in the insertion and fluids to cleanse the colonic mucosa and the colonoscope lens. The camera project visual data on a screen that shows abnormalities and overgrowth of the colonic wall. The data also helps in evaluating, biopsy, and removal of mucosal lesions using the accessory channels.

Colonoscopy Purpose

Colonoscopy is indicated for various reasons. First, it is used for screening colonoscopies to assess for colorectal cancer in patients at high risks like those with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, hereditary polyposis, a family history of colorectal cancer at age <60 years, and surveillance after resection of colorectal cancer (Saito et al., 2021). Healthcare guidelines recommend starting the screening at age 45 and after every 10 years. As an elective procedure, colonoscopy evaluates symptoms like inexplicable changes in bowel habits, inflammatory colitis, GI bleeding, weight loss among the geriatrics, persistent abdominal pain, and iron deficiency anemia (Saito et al., 2021). Therapeutically, colonoscopy helps with excision and ablation of lesions, removal of foreign bodies, stenosis dilation, palliative management of known neoplasms, and handling of bleeding lesions.

Case Study Assignment 1

. A good tool should be highly accurate and dependable. The burden of breast cancer continues to rise in the modern era, necessitating the development of more precise tools to improve screening and .
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of mammograms in detecting breast cancer.

The Test’s Purpose

A mammogram is a screening tool that is used exclusively fors and provides sufficient imaging to detect breast carcinoma. When performed early in the disease’s progression, there is a greater chance of obtaining a favorable prognosis, which results in an increased chance of patient survival (Le & Adler, 2020). It is essentially a breast x-ray. This imaging technique produces a pictorial representation of the breast using a low x-ray dose. Women are encouraged to have the test performed on a regular basis to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, as cancer is one of the

Assignment 1 Case Study Assignment Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

leading causes of death in women (Seely & Alhassan, 2018). Late detection results in a poor prognosis, as the cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body, making treatment more difficult.

The purpose of the mammography is to aid in the detection of breast tissue alterations. Because the test can detect microcalcifications less than 100 micrometers in diameter, it can detect cancer in a patient before there are any visible lumps. Additionally, the test delivers an accurate image of the breast because it only requires one or two views of the breast tissues.
Alternatively, the test might be used to aid in pre-operative localisation in patients who are already experiencing symptoms.

Conducting the Examination Only with proper preparation can imaging evaluation results be accurately interpreted. Patients are advised not to wear talcum powder prior to a mammography examination because calcium artifacts from talcum powder may cause false-positive results. The patient must be open and honest about any underlying issues in order to obtain information about his or her medical history. The radiologist should also ensure that their patients understand what to expect and the significance of the test so that they can relax before it is performed. When the patient is ready, they are instructed to stand in front of the x-ray machine, breasts strapped on plastic. The plate flattens the breasts, allowing for a better x-ray image (Mack & Lapane, 2019).

Digital mammograms can also be generated using a full-field electron setup. Imaging data from a radiological analysis is sent to a computer for storage and retrieval. Through the elimination of human error, digitalization improves the diagnostic process’ accuracy. When using tomosynthetic mammography, several pictures of the breast are taken from various perspectives.
The image can be used to diagnose differences in calcium distribution and tissue density.

a Collection of Data

In addition to revealing mass distribution, the test identifies regions of calcification in the breast. Microcalcifications in the breast tissue cannot be detected by palpation because they are too small to be felt (Iranmakani et al., 2020).

valid, sensitive, and reliable mammography Sensitivity

True positives and negatives must be able to be identified by a valid test. However, the tests’ sensitivity and specificity are affected by a variety of circumstances. False positives and negatives will always occur as a result. It is possible to identify even little calcium deposits in the breasts with mammography, making it a safe and valid diagnostic tool (Badu-Peprah & Adu-Sarkodie, 2018). The test is also standardized, reducing the amount of variation in the results that can be reported.

Digital mammograms are more accurate and reliable than film-based mammograms, which are less accurate and reliable. When compared to other screening methods, the breast mammogram’s estimated sensitivity value is substantially greater at 87 percent, according to Giampietro et al. (2020). According to statistics, 7 percent of actual cases are negative.
Breast cancer can be detected by capturing a series of photos, but false positives can be eliminated by doing so. The majority of false-positive instances, on the other hand, involve hormone therapy patients since the technique increases breast density, which might be misconstrued for cancer. With a 90.9 percent accuracy rate, mammograms are highly predictive of positive and negative results (Giampietro et al., 2020).
Because of its excellent positive predictive value, this test can be relied upon.

Conclusion

As a final component of predictive value or repeatability, a trustworthy test should produce consistent results. Mammography is a relevant and reliable screening and diagnosis tool for breast cancer because of its strong predictive value. False-positive findings are extremely rare with this test.

Also Check Out:

When seeking to , advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture—among other factors—are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

For this Assignment, you will consider the . You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

The Assignment

Assignment (3–4 pages, not including title and reference pages):

Include the following:

  • A you were assigned is used in healthcare.
    • What is its purpose?
    • How is it conducted?
    • What information does it gather?
  • Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting.

Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

One of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the US continues to be obesity. The high incidence of obesity continues to pressure the American healthcare system since it significantly contributes to death, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization, and costs (Anderson et al., 2019). Anthropometric measures and information gathering on a client’s medical history, clinical and biochemical characteristics, dietary habits, current treatments, and food security situation are all included in nutrition assessment. Nutritional status is the body’s state concerning each nutrient and its overall weight and condition, and it plays a significant role in promoting health and preventing and treating disorders.

Rapid and easy identification of individuals who may be malnourished or at risk of malnutrition and require a more thorough nutrition evaluation can be done before a complete nutrition assessment. Checking for bilateral pitting edema, evaluating weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and asking about recent illnesses and hunger are all simple nutrition screening techniques. Standardized training is needed for nutrition screening per local and national health regulations. The paper highlights health issues identified in a 5 – year old overweight black boy with overweight parents that are full-time employees.

Relevant Health Issues and Risks

Preschoolers of color (ages 2–5) have slightly higher rates of obesity than white children. Black children, however, have greater obesity prevalence rates by age 6. Lifestyle choices like nutrition, activity level, culture, environment, and parental judgments are all connected to obesity in preschoolers (Anderson et al., 2019). Issues identified in the 5- year -old boy are age, race, family history of obesity, full-time parental employment, and grandparent’s care. A myriad of health issues, including diabetes, heart disease, sleep apnea, stress, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, eating disorders, hypertension, stroke, asthma, cancer, breathing problems, bone, and joint disorders, gall bladder disease, infertility, eating disorders, dyslipidemia, liver problems, high cholesterol, and sleep issues are all at risk for patients with childhood obesity.

In many high-income countries, paid work has increased in two-parent and lone-parent families during the past few decades. These changes are primarily the result of more mothers entering the workforce. It has been proposed that parental employment, specifically maternal employment, is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Lack of adequate leisure outside of work has been cited as a major mechanism for a relationship between employment and childhood overweight (Fryar et al., 2018). Due to time constraints, it may be challenging to promote a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet and regular mealtimes, encouraging kids to participate in physical activity, limiting their screen time, and having kids walk to school rather than be driven.

Grandparents can have a significant impact on the growth and development of their grandchildren. Parent-child care is associated with a 30% greater incidence of childhood obesity and overweight (Sadruddin et al., 2019). Some believe that “the bigger, the healthier” is still valid. Some grandparents could view a child’s larger weight as a sign of health. As a result, some kids are advised to eat larger portions and more frequently. Some grandparents may give children candy and fried foods as a gesture of love and goodwill. In some cultures, grandparents may even be more willing to excuse kids from completing duties around the house, which is a crucial exercise.

Gathering Further Information

A comprehensive history is vital in the patient’s evaluation. The Pediatric Obesity Algorithm is an evidence-based guide for diagnosing and treating obese children (Fryar et al., 2018). A healthcare provider should gain further information on the diet, activity level, family social history, including the parent’s working hours, birth and developmental history, and parental perceptions of obesity, and screen for any obesity-related complications. Because controlling these behaviors is essential to the success of any weight-management program, it is important to rule out the possibility of food-seeking behavior, bingeing, lack of satiety, purging, night-eating syndrome, and other abnormal feeding patterns.

For diet inventory, the healthcare provider should utilize the 24 – hour recall, food group, and food frequency questionnaire. The history of the breast- or bottle-feeding, the timing of the introduction of complementary foods, parenting techniques, cultural expectations, screen time, mealtime locations, bullying or social exclusion, the family’s willingness and capacity to make changes, and finally, financial constraints are all part of the family and social history. A child’s activity level should also be evaluated, along with the child’s access to secure exercise places and any necessary support for high activity levels. The practitioner must also evaluate non-academic screen time and sedentary time.

Questions posed to the parents and child include: Kindly give me a 24-hour recall of the foods you have taken. How often do you prepare homemade food? What is the estimated time you have with your child outside work? Kindly explain your house plan. What are some of the exercises and play activities that your child takes part in? Can you name some of your child’s friends? Has your child reported bullying or isolation by friends at any time? Do you give the grandmother any instructions on feeding and exercise of the child? Are there other obese family members? Do you think that your child has a weight problem? What are some of the risks the child may suffer from being overweight? What measures have you taken to deal with the issue?

Encouraging Active Parents’ Involvement

Parents serve as powerful role models for children aged 5 to 9 years, so it is highly advised that the family be involved in the care of the child who is obese. There should be a strict limit on non-academic screen time overall (Chai et al., 2019). A reduction in obesity is linked to substituting moderately intense physical activity for screen time. Children in this age range still need between 11 and 14 hours of sleep, preferably all at once, and naps cannot accomplish this during the day due to deficiencies at night. Sleep is still essential. The recommended daily caloric intake for obese children aged 5 to 9 is three meals and one or two wholesome snacks. Three servings of protein, 1-2 servings of dairy, and 4-5 servings of non-starchy vegetables should be consumed daily from each food group. They should not consume any fast food or beverages with added sugar. Children should be encouraged to try different meals, and portion amounts should be age-appropriate.

The parents should be actively involved by reading materials regarding the management of obesity. They may join hands and form support groups with parents dealing with the same issue. A nutrition plan and exercise should be developed in consultation with the nutritionist. The parents should also lose weight to serve as role models to their children in the weight management journey. The grandmother should be informed of the measures so that she can implement them when with the child. The parents should be encouraged to seek more secure jobs that ensure that either parent is available, especially after school. The patient should be encouraged that it is a gradual process that needs patience and consistency.

Conclusion

Childhood obesity is a chronic condition that can cause early comorbidity, mortality, and physical and psychological consequences. Lifestyle choices like nutrition, activity level, culture, environment, and parental judgments are all connected to obesity in preschoolers. Promoting healthy behaviors could help eliminate health disparities and enhance the quality of life. Programs should target young Black children and their families to lower the incidence of obesity. To prevent childhood obesity and overweight, nurses must offer comprehensive, culturally relevant strategies at the community, individual, and family levels.

 

 

References

Anderson, P. M., Butcher, K. F., & Schanzenbach, D. W. (2019). Understanding recent trends in childhood obesity in the United States. Economics & Human Biology, 34, 16-25.

Chai, L. K., Collins, C., May, C., Brain, K., Wong See, D., & Burrows, T. (2019). Effectiveness of family-based weight management interventions for children with overweight and obesity: an umbrella review: An umbrella review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports17(7), 1341–1427.

Fryar, C. D., Carroll, M. D., & Ogden, C. L. (2018). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years: United States, 1963–1965 through 2015–2016.

Sadruddin, A. F., Ponguta, L. A., Zonderman, A. L., Wiley, K. S., Grimshaw, A., & Panter-Brick, C. (2019). How do grandparents influence child health and development? A systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 239, 112476.

Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case:
Include the following:

  • An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned.
  • Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.
  • Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
  • Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.
  • Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.
  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2). Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor.
  • Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?
  • Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool.
  • If you are assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example.
    • Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
    • Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.
By Day 6 of Week 3

Submit your Assignment.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
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  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
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  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Evaluation Instruments and Diagnostic Tests for Adults and Children
This week’s discussion board was centered on a case study involving an underweight 12-year-old girl whose parents were also underweight, as well as what health concerns and risks the provider should be aware of regarding this child. This assignment will also go over any additional information that may be needed to evaluate this case, as well as the questions that should be asked of the child’s parents in order to gather information about her development and any potential sensitivity issues. The discussion board will conclude with two strategies to encourage the patient and her family to lose weight and monitor her health improvement.

Health Problems

There are a number of health concerns and issues that can impact the overall health and lifespan of individuals who are underweight. This patient is underweight, which raises concerns for malnutrition that will affect her growth and development, inability to fight off infections and diseases, as well as a high risk for heart attacks and cognitive impairments, such as diminished concentration (Semba & Bloem, 2017). A further cause for concern is that her parents are also underweight, which may indicate that their socioeconomic status is such that they cannot afford food, or that they suffer from genetic and digestive disorders (Russo, 2017). Her mental health may also be a contributing factor to her being underweight. She may have experienced a traumatic event that has caused her to be ashamed of her body and control her life through her weight and an eating disorder, or she may be bullied and depressed at school (Martin, et al., 2014).

Extra Information Required

The nutritional factors of the family will be required information for recognizing health concerns and problems. What they eat, how often they shop for groceries, and whether they consider their weight to be healthy. The provider must determine the patient’s and her family’s body mass index (BMI) to determine whether they are healthy or underweight (Ball, et al., 2015). The formula for calculating BMI involves dividing the patient’s weight by her height. If the number is less than 19.5, the patient is considered malnourished (Ball et al., 2015). Assessment Instruments and Diagnostic Tests for Adults and Children: A Case Study.

Three Specific Questions

Considering the case study and the information that will be required to investigate the patient’s medical history further, certain questions will need to be asked. The three specific questions a physician should ask a patient and his or her parents are:

What would you say your weight is? (CDC, 2017). This question will allow the provider to evaluate her mental health based on her self-perception.

Are your family members also very thin? (Russo, 2017). This question will collect information on genetics as a potential provider factor (Russo, 2017).

What do you typically consume over the course of 24 hours?

Two Strategies to Promote Initiative

The first step in promoting an individual’s health is to educate the patient about their health and management. If the patient is unaware of the risk factors associated with their medical history, family history, and lifestyle, they will not achieve positive health outcomes. Assessment Instruments and Diagnostic Tests for Adults and Children: A Case Study. In this circumstance, nutrition education is required (Gibbs & Chapman-Novakofski, 2012). This can include a nutrition consultation, information about my plate, which specifies the number of servings required for fruit, vegetables, and meat, as well as what can occur when the body’s nutritional needs are not met. To promote education, the provider must be aware of the patient’s health literacy. Understanding how your patient learns is essential for preparing a treatment or plan of care that the patient will understand and adhere to, given that most people read at a third-grade level (Gibbs & Chapman-Novakofski, 2012).

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The second strategy for promoting healthy eating is to advocate for the patient and provide her with resources that can assist her in acquiring food if she is experiencing financial difficulties in meeting this need. Numerous government offices offer WIC programs that provide families with vouchers to purchase healthy food that meets the percentage of carbohydrates, protein, and fats recommended for healthy growth (Ball, et al., 2015) Assessment Instruments and Diagnostic Tests for Adults and Children: A Case Study.

Summary

In order to assist the patient in adopting a healthy lifestyle and preventing future health issues, the provider must obtain a thorough medical history and physical examination. Asking the appropriate questions and gaining an understanding of the patient’s history can also aid in the selection of appropriate treatments and medications. It is essential to establish a good rapport with patients and their families so that they will be open, honest, and not fear judgment.

References

Ball, J. W., J. E. Dains, J. A. Flynn, B. S. Solomon, and R. W. Stewart (2015). Guide to physical examination by Seidel (8th ed.). Saint Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Mosby. Assessment Instruments And Diagnostic Tests In Adults And Children: A Case Study

CDC (2017). Overview of the Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance System (YRBSS). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/overview.htm

Gibbs, H., & Chapman-Novakofski, K. (2012). Exploring nutritional literacy with a focus on assessment and client-required skills. Health, 4(3), 120-124, retrieved: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/health.2012.43019

Martin, B. C., W. T. Dalton, S. L. Williams, D. L. Slawson, M. S. Dunn, and R. Johns-Wommack (2014). Misperception of Weight Status in Relation to Selected Health Risk Behaviors in Middle School Students. Journal of School Health, 84(2):116-123; doi:10.1111/josh.12128

Russo, Joseph (2017). What are the causes of childhood underweight? What are the causes of underweight children? Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/198981-what-are-the-causes-of-underweight-children/

Semba, R. D., & Bloem, M. W. (2017). Health and Nutrition in a Developing World (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Barry Popkin/publication/225833386 The Nutrition Transition and Its Relationship to Demographic Change/links/54c7b36a0cf289f0cecd96c8/The-Nutrition-Transition-and-Its-Relationship-to-Demographic-Change.pdf#page=137 Assessment Instruments And Diagnostic Tests In Adults And Children: A Case Study

Name: NURS_6512_Week_3_Assignment_1_Rubric_Option_1

Excellent Good Fair Poor
In 3–4 pages, address the following:

A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
o What is its purpose?
o How is it conducted?
o What information does it gather?

Points Range: 30 (30%) – 35 (35%)
The response clearly, accurately, and with specific detail describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
Points Range: 24 (24%) – 29 (29%)
The response accurately describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
Points Range: 18 (18%) – 23 (23%)
The response vaguely and/or with some inaccuracy describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)
The response is inaccurate or missing descriptions of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values.
Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
The response accurately and thoroughly evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with clear sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is clear, accurate, and appropriate for the evaluation.
Points Range: 39 (39%) – 44 (44%)
The response accurately evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is somewhat clear, accurate,and appropriate for the evaluation.
Points Range: 33 (33%) – 38 (38%)
The response vaguely and/or with some inaccuracy evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with some sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is vague or inaccurate for the evaluation.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 32 (32%)
“The response is inaccurate and/or missing evaluations of the test or tool’s validity and reliability, with explanations of any issues missing or lacking sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is missing, inaccurate, or lacking for the evaluation.
Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive.
Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.
Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors.
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.
Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
Total Points: 100

 

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