Single-Factor Designs and Correlational Research

Please comment/discuss on the three topics attached with 100-150 words each. Thanks

Topic 1: Single-Factor Designs
For each of the following, identify the independent variable and its levels, and the dependent variable. For the independent variable, indicate whether it is (a) a between- or a within-subjects variable, and (b) a manipulated or a subject variable. For the dependent variable(s), identify the measurement scale. Finally, identify the experimental design for each study. When you have completed the identification phase, check your answers and process and correct any errors.
In a study of food preferences, participants taste a series of six different rice dishes, each seasoned differently, and rate each (on 5-point scales) for (a) intensity of the taste and (b) the pleasantness of the taste.
Answer: IV: food type (levels = the six different types of rice)
within-subjects; manipulated
DV: ratings for intensity and quality (both interval)
Design: single-factor, multilevel, repeated-measures design

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Topic 2: Factorial Designs
For each of the following descriptions, identify the independent and dependent variables (and the measurement scale for the dependent variables), indicate the levels of the independent variables and their attributes (between- or within-subjects; manipulated or subject; if manipulated, situational, task, or instructional), and identify the type of factorial design, including the notation system (e.g., 2×3).

Include the rationale for your choices and discussion of any features that you had trouble identifying.
In a cognitive mapping study, a researcher wants to determine if experience on campus and building usage will help students identify the locations of buildings on campus. A map of the campus is prepared that includes only the border of the school and the location of the psychology building (the experiment takes place in the psych building). Participants (freshman and sophomores, who are assumed to differ in overall familiarity with the campus) are asked to mark on the map the locations of three campus buildings that are assumed to vary in frequency of usage: the chapel (least visited), the gym (intermediate), and the dining hall (most visited). After placing each location on the map, participants indicate how confident they are of their decision (1-5 scale).
Answer: IV#1: class (freshman, sophomore)
between-subjects; subject variable
IV#2: campus location (chapel, gym, dining hall)
within-subjects; manipulated variable; task
DVs: location accuracy (ratio); confidence (interval)
Design: 2×3 PxE mixed factorial design

Topic 3: Correlational Research
As a researcher, suppose you are interested in the extent to which biological factors are associated with shyness in females. Assume you have access to 20 adopted children, all females, and you give each a shyness test. The test yields scores from 0-20 and the higher the score, the greater the degree of shyness. You also test the biological mother and the adoptive mother.

Solution Preview
Topic 1
The researchers of this study are interested in individual food preferences. They designed a study in which participants will each taste six different rice dishes and rate each dish on a 5-point scale. The ratings scale has two levels: intensity of taste and pleasantness of taste. The study design is a within-subjects design, because there is only one group of participants who will participate in all of the testing conditions. There is one independent variable with six levels (types of rice). The dependent variables are interval units of measurement. This is a within-subjects, single factor repeated-measures design because each testing condition (six levels of the IV) is repeated with all the participants in the study.
*NOTE: I see that the individual before you wrote an incorrect description of why the study is a within-subjects study. For your response, note what I put …

Solution Summary
This solution includes information and examples about research design, specifically single-factor designs and correlational research.

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