What are the 4 fundamental laws of logic?

The Solution tackles the following questions:

What are the 4 fundamental laws of logic?
What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic?
What role does emotion play in the critical thinking process?
What is the difference between persuasion and manipulation? Solution Preview
1. What are the 4 fundamental laws of logic?
a) The law of (non-)contradiction: A cannot be A and not-A at the same time. What this means is that a statement cannot be true and false at the same time. For instance, it cannot be raining and not raining at the same time.
b) The law of identity: everything is what it is. A is A, that is, identical with A. A=A. If any statement is true, then it is true.
c) The law of the excluded middle: A is either A or not A. A cannot equal non A or be non A.
d) The law of sufficient reason or rational inference: there should be sufficient reason for all that happens. For instance, if the ground is wet, it must be due to fluid coming into contact with it.

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2. What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic?
a) In logic deduction is inference in which a conclusion follows necessarily from one or more given premises. Deduction argues from the universal to the particular. For instance, all X are Y, D is X therefore D is Y.
b) Induction takes a number of observed particular facts and derives from them …

Solution Summary
Does logic have fundamental laws, if it does, what are they? What is the role of emotions in critical thinking? Is there a difference between deductive and inductive logic? How does one know the difference between persuasion and manipulation?

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